Toy is an important appliance for children. In the Qing Dynasty, some mechanical toys in the West were introduced to China and were welcomed in the court and became the “player” of the royal members. As the American missionary Hendlan has “Cixi and Guangxu – China ‘s Games” (Jiangxi People’s Publishing House, published in 2014), I like foreign mechanical toys when I wrote (Guangxu Emperor). The characteristics of these toys are, in the hidden place, put on the hair, tighten the hair, and the toys seem to have life. The Palace Museum is now some mechanical toys, which are exquisite, full of wisdom and interest.
Illusion is a toddler mechanic is a toy that can automatically perform magic. The external shape of the toy mainly includes magician, magic table, cup, dice, etc. Among them, the magic teacher holds a magical rod; the magic table covered with the desktop and the following power system part; the desktop is two, there is a rotatable fruit plate in each cup, there is a pumpkin, persimmon, pomegranate and other fruits and vegetables; For hollow, there is a doll. When the hair strip is tight, the music sounds, the magician turns the head, and the magic stick in the hand point to the cup or dice. When the magic stick points to the cup, the cup opens, exposes a fruit and vegetable; when the cup is closed, another fruit is revealed. When the magic stick points to the dice, the dice is unveiled, the doll disappears; when the dice cover is once opened again, the dolls appear. The above performance movement is repeated. When the Palace Museum cultural relics repaired the “illusion”, the principle of “illusion” was discovered when fixing a watchmaker with similar magic. The magician of the transformation action, the rotating fruit plate, rising dollar doll, the interior has a connecting rod connected to the camera under the desktop. There are several groups in the movement, each group is equivalent to a power system, responsible for a specific action. When the foot is on, the movement of each group of transmission is rotated, and thereby causing the link to drive the above-mentioned magic performance activity.
Wooden frame rotating painted glass sheet is a variable pattern of toys. The toy is mainly composed of a rectangular wooden board, a circular glass sheet, a metal ring, a gear, a metal handle, and a hole right iron sheet. Among them, the wooden board is 15 cm long and 8 cm wide. It is a circular mouth of about 7 cm in the center. It is used to place glass sheet; there are two pieces of glass, which draws Western architecture, Western ventricular scenery; two glasses The strip is stacked, and the periphery is fixed by a metal ring; the gear is contained in the metal ring, the gear is connected to the metal handle; the right angle iron sheet is fixed in the right side of the wooden board, vertical with the hole surface and the wooden plate, the hole is mainly used for metal handle Over, start a direction. When using, the handle is rotated, the gear is rotated, and the gear can be flip the glass sheet, and the above two images can be displayed separately. The toy’s display is similar to the “La Yang” performance in the Chinese folk customs in the Qing Dynasty. “Pulling Ocean” is placed in the wooden box, each picture is connected by a rope, and the performer replaces the contents through the drawing of the picture, the viewer can watch the picture through the convex lens embedded in the box facade. In addition, the flat glass is from the West, and its painting features, the painter is in the back of the glass (painting, coloring order is opposite to ordinary painting), while the audience uses the glass of transparency to enjoy the other side of the color . At that time, the flat glass was complex, costly, and the back painting is large, thereby visible to the rareity of the mechanical toy.
Wooden gold paint bird is a toy that simulates a bird called. The bird’s cerish is similar to the ordinary bird cage, and there is a fake tree made in the cage, and the tree on the top of the tree. The bird cage base has a control system for mechanical devices. After the device is started, the stylus is turned around. The last emperor is like a bird cercheter. When I remembered the book of “Qing Palace Memories” book, I saw a lot of toys in the Yangxian Temple, the favorite thing is “those with machines, such as the big eight” boxes and fake birds. Wait”. Among them, “fake birds” in the bird audio cage, the cage is prepared with gold silk, the bird is also made with gold; after the hair strip is good, the bird is hung up on the palace, and suddenly the bird Qi Ming, melodious, lifelike.
The researchers of the Palace Museum Wenkang Science and Technology Department discovered the construction of the bird’s cage base control system when the bird’s audible beam (like the band is constructed, the function of the clock) was repaired. The control system consists primarily by a link, a circular shaft piece, a piston, a styling bird, a cylinder, a gas bag, a whistle. Among them, both ends of the connecting rod are connected to the clock, pistons, and there are branches connected to the styling bird; the piston is located in the cylinder, and the two ends are connected to the link, the air bag, respectively; the air bag is cortical, including suction layers And the air, both ends are connected to the piston, whistle, respectively. When the hair strip is tight, the elastic force is gradually released, and the power is generated, and the shaft slide is rotated to make a turning action, and the piston is driven in the cylinder. The air in the cylinder is constantly compressed and expanded under the action of the piston, and the air bag is ventilated and inhaled, which in turn makes the whistle emit a rhythmic bird.
It is not difficult to find that the power system of the above mechanical toys is derived from the world’s more advanced mechanical manufacturing technology, and its shape has a significant geographical cultural characteristics, and it is a valuable cultural relic of witness the ancient Western technology and cultural exchanges.
(The author is the palace missionary research librarian)
Source: Science and Technology Daily