What are the unknown stories behind the fixed telephone?

■ Text | Shijing Financial column writer Ye Kefei

A few days ago, because of the need at home, I restarted the fixed phone that had been suspended for a long time. By the way, I asked my friends a question: “Do you still have a fixed phone in your family?”

固定电话消亡,背后有哪些不为人知的故事?

There are very few friends who reply to “Yes”, and there are children at home without exception. The installation phone is mainly for the children to contact them when they are at home.

Enter the “fixed telephone” in the search engine, and meet with a large number of articles such as “fixed telephone dying”. One of the greatest inventions in human history, with the popularity of migration, farther away from the initial form. The phone fixed at home may really become history.

Fixed telephone, one of the greatest inventions in human history

Since its birth, human beings have never stopped the innovation of communication technology. From the beacon on the observation tower to the pigeons of artificially trained, people want to do everything possible to speed up the communication speed. But until nearly two hundred years, after gradually understanding the use of electricity, the progress of human beings in communication technology can be described as the word “rapid progress”.

In 1793, the Chapei brothers in France set up a 230 -km long bracket line between Paris and Reil to quickly pass the message by signal tower connection. In 1796, Hughes proposed the method of transmitting voice information with a microphone relay, and called this communication method as Telephone. This familiar word was born.

In 1837, the Americans Mols designed the Momes code, using different combinations of “points”, “scratches” and “interval” to represent letters, numbers, punctuation and symbols. On May 24, 1844, in the conference hall of the Federal Court of the Federal Court of Washington Parliament, he manipulated the telegram machine and issued the world’s first telegram.

On February 14, 1876, Bell applied for telephone patent rights in the US Patent Office. On June 2, 1875, he connected the metal sheet to the electromagnetic switch in the experiment, and the sound was wonderful. However, the inventor of the phone has always been divergent. Until 2002, the inventor of the US Congress confirmed that the inventor of the phone was Antonio Muqi.

Early telephone

After Bell and others, various inventors have launched their own research results and made various improvements on the phone. A large number of patents have been applied, such as automatic dial -up system, application of dry batteries, applications for loading coils, electronic triode pipes, electronic triode pipes Invention, etc. On January 25, 1915, the first cross -district telephone line was opened between New York and San Francisco.

固定电话消亡,背后有哪些不为人知的故事?

On July 1, 1948, the crystal tube was invented, and the telephone technology was thousands of miles a day. In 1956, the British and Canadian Underwestern Ocean was laid to complete the telephone cable, making telephone communication between the long -distance mainland. However, at this time China’s telecommunications system is still developing slowly.

China’s fixed telephone has not developed for decades

In 1881, a British electrical technician set up a pair of open -air calls along the streets of Shanghai Sixteen Panels, and paid 36 civilian money to call once. This is China’s first call. On February 21, 1882, Dandao Daei Telegraph set up a telephone exchange center on the Bund of Shanghai, which is the first telephone office in China. In 1900, the Shanghai Nanjing Telegraph Bureau opened the city phone, at the time there were only 16 telephones. In 1949, the telephone penetration rate was only 0.05%, and the telephone users were only 260,000. In 1978, the national telephone penetration rate was only 0.38%, which was less than 1/10 of the world level. At that time, China, which accounted for 1/5 of the world’s population, the total number of telephones owned was less than 1%of the total number of telephones in the world, and there were less than one of each of the 200 people.

Moreover, at that time, long -distance transmission depends on light lines and simulation microwaves. Even if Beijing has 20%of long -distance calls every day, 15%will not be connected in 1 hour. It is said that the person who went to the Beijing Telegraph Building to call to line up with lunch.

Telephone window of Tianjin Post and Telecommunications Bureau

Until the 1980s, China began to vigorously develop the construction of basic telecommunications facilities. In 1982, China’s first coin -to -public telephone number appeared in Beijing. In December 1982, the first Wanmen Sub -Dialai Exchange System introduced from Japan was put into use and used in Fuzhou Telecommunications Bureau to build the first proceeding telephone office introduced in China. By March 2003, the fixed telephone users reached 225 million. “Upstairs and downstairs, electric lights”, this saying has gradually become a part of the Chinese life. Of course, the early fixed telephone was needed to have a first installation fee of thousands of dollars, and then this fee was gradually canceled.

固定电话消亡,背后有哪些不为人知的故事?

About 2006 to 2008, the domestic fixed telephone rate reached its peak. Taking Shenyang as an example, in 2008, the city’s fixed telephone users 3.852 million households.

But with the popularity of mobile phones and the improvement of the Internet, fixed telephones gradually disappeared from many families. A few years ago, data showed that in the 1970s, more than 90%of families installed fixed telephones in the United States, and now only half of the families still retain fixed telephones, and the proportion of China is lower. Data in the second quarter of 2015 showed that China’s fixed telephone penetration rate was far lower than that of mobile phones. The fixed telephone penetration rate in most regions in China was 20%to 30%, and mobile phones were as high as 60%. In 2016, Shenyang, which had a fixed telephone user of 3.852 million households in 2008, had only 2.261 million households. In other words, 1.591 million households evaporated in eight years. It was also that year, and the number of mobile phone users in Suqian was 7 times the number of fixed telephones.

In 2017, data from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology showed that China’s fixed telephone users lost 24.37 million people a year, and only 200 million people were still using fixed telephones, while mobile phone users reached 1.32 billion households, and one person had two or three mobile phone numbers.

It can be used as the address book of each unit. You can find out that the address book 20 years ago, rare mobile phones appeared, the paging machine was not standard, and the family phone column was dense. But the current address book, the paging machine is not visible, the family phone appears a lot of blank, but everyone has everyone. Especially for young people to decorate new houses, rare to install a fixed phone. After all, the monthly rental fee and call display fee for fixed telephones, even if it is not used, the tariff will exceed the phone at any time.

固定电话消亡,背后有哪些不为人知的故事?

The fixed telephone itself is also changing. In recent years, all provinces and cities have shut down the processing of the phone. The traditional fixed telephone network has been replaced by a new system that integrates fixed telephones, movement and data. But this is not good for fixed phone installation, but it has an impact. Because of the advancement of optical fiber households, it is no longer necessary to bundle fixed telephones to apply for broadband, which prompts more old users to give up fixed calls.

In the post -issued China, the “fixed telephone time” is shorter

I read an article last year, which is very interesting. The title is “Why do Chinese people never use a seat message for 30 years?”

When watching Hong Kong dramas and American dramas, they often see people in the play that enables the message function of fixed telephone. When I get home, I will open the message mailbox. After listening, there is one to promote the plot at any time. But such scenes rarely appear in the ecology of the Chinese family.

The reason is very simple. As a post -developed country, China has completed a large leap development with a high -speed growth of thirty or forty years. This leap also made China directly “ignore” many industries and processes.

This is the fixed telephone. Mainstream developed countries have achieved the popularity of fixed telephone families. It has nearly a century earlier and less than 560 years. But in China, even the earliest and most developed Pearl River Delta regions, realizing the popularity of fixed telephone families around 1995 is about 1995.

The phone message from the Pingkman family in “Desperate Poison Division” is one of the highlights of the play

For Western countries, for decades, fixed phone calls are the only mainstream and instant messaging tools. Therefore, people have high dependence on fixed telephones and frequent use. In the process, various habits have also been developed. In contrast, the Chinese have not cultivated the habit of using a fixed telephone, and they have already caught up with the rise of the mobile network. In some relatively developed areas, the popularity of fixed telephones is even compared with the relative popularity of mobile phones. Because of this, a fixed telephone message mailbox, an important communication channel for Western people, has not cultivated the opportunity to become a habit in China.

Similar situations will occur today in South America and Africa. The government will repeatedly reduce the investment in fixed telephone networks and increase investment in mobile communication. Many people have already used their mobile phone before using a fixed phone.

However, whether it is a developed country or in China, although the fixed telephone users have repeatedly lost, the composition of the remaining users is hidden with the vitality of a fixed telephone.

Will the fixed phone become a smart fixed phone?

There was a survey in the United States, which included data from “who no longer applicable to fixed telephones”. Among them, 75.9%of the “people who do not live with their families” abandoned the fixed telephone, and 58.2%of the residents of the city rented houses gave up the fixed phone, and more than half of the low -income groups gave up the fixed phone.

The common characteristics of these groups are unstable living and need to move frequently. In contrast, existing users of fixed telephones are generally stable. In addition, data shows that among groups with high income, the family fixed phone rate is significantly higher than that of low -income groups.

These data illustrate two points: one is the concept of stability hidden behind the fixed telephone, and the other is that the fixed telephone is an outdated tool on the surface, but it is not like other things. on the contrary.

The concept of the home actually confirms the characteristics of the age of fixed telephones. The reason why the elderly value the fixed phone is because many people cannot adapt to smartphones. And they have a lot of time at home, better phone signals, small radiation, and better confidentiality.

In China, which is aging, the significance of fixed telephones is not just a simple call. Its stability and the characteristics of no need to worry about power are more conducive to dealing with emergencies. In the old people’s house, connecting fixed telephones with Ping An bells is also a future trend. In addition, fixed telephones are connected with smart homes and security facilities, which is currently a very common attempt.

In fact, this composite fixed phone is not just a future trend, but also what the fixed telephone is born.

After the fixed telephone was born, it did not immediately enter the family life. Its main application field is political and business fields. In other words, its initial target group is relatively high -end. Because of this, as a new thing in the field of communication, the fixed telephone immediately carries social functions.

At the Paris International Electric Expo in 1881, people lined up and listened to music from one mile with a phone call. Paris has also had “drama calls”, and people can hit the theater to “listen to the show”.

Telephone news has also existed for a long time, especially the Exchange Exchange, which will repeatedly replay the stock price every morning. In addition, there will be news fast newspaper every hour, provided to those who missed the Morning Post. In the afternoon, there will be sports messages, stories, and word -of -pass games, etc. In the evening, there will be drama, poetry recitations, concerts and speeches. Many people even take language courses on the phone. At that time, the telephone news business of cities such as Budapest actually realized all the functions of the daily newspaper. Some people think that “a person can put his ears on the device for a whole day, waiting to listen to certain special news or securities transaction prices.”

Of course, the most reliable position in the fixed telephone is still the office. Fixed phone call means higher stability and security, and it is also easier to trust. Of course, this is related to the characteristics of the fixed telephone itself, and it is also related to the privacy crisis of modern society.

To this day, in social etiquette, the fixed telephone still carries etiquette functions. Although mobile phones have become popular, in the work, the phone directly dialed the phone when communicating with the other party for the first time, and the mobile phone is more polite, after all, the mobile phone is more personal. However, the first contact and communication with a fixed telephone will be more formal.

This seemingly old -fashioned method shows a stronger side in modern society and is often mentioned. After all, the popularity of social software has greatly increased privacy to be violated. The relatively simple function of the fixed telephone maintains personal information.

Of course, there are different opinions that people think that people’s fear of social software is too nervous. They gave an interesting example: When the phone was invented, the British who always paid attention to the traditional British also paid attention to privacy issues. They believed that the phone was an over -direct exchange tool that would invade privacy. Visiting the door was the most suitable way of interpersonal communication.

But since the development of human society, the concept of modern people is also changing. First of all, visiting the door has long been the most impolite way. As for the comparison of mobile phones and fixed telephones, the advantage of the latter may only be in the office. If it is at home, mobile phones that can be turned off at any time can sometimes ensure privacy than fixed telephones.

In other words, human privacy protection and exchanges are always changing. This may be the disadvantage of a fixed telephone, or it may be its vitality.

This article is an independent point of view of the author, does not represent the city’s financial position, and does not constitute investment proposals.