The author once discussed the “eight characters non -handling” method used by the ancients when identifying the death of death, which fully illustrates the accumulation of experience in the Chinese traditional inspection system that focuses on the appearance of corpse wounds, and does not perform the intuitional characteristics of corpse anatomy. So, for the symptoms of diseases or poisoning from the body, when ancient inspectors can no longer collect evidence when observing the external characteristics of the corpse injury, what should I do? What should I do when the “Silver Disposal Poisoning Method” cannot be used to test all poisoning symptoms? With such doubts, the author continued to explore the wisdom of the ancients.
The wonderful use of silver 钗: “Silver Disposter Drugs”
“All scars are true and pseudo -distinguished, but one poisoning, there are non -poisonous people, such as typhoid fever, yin syndrome, dark wind, poisoning and the like, each with bruises, the shape is still.” It can be seen that in the eyes of the ancients The poisoning phenomenon is greatly increased compared to the inspection of the surface corpse injury. Faced with this confusion, they summarized a set of effective inspection methods in practice. In the “Washing Collection”, Song Ci gave a detailed explanation of the ancient silver cricket poisoning technology:
If you are used to take poison, wash it with silver crickets, soap angle water, and explore the throat of the dead, seal with paper, take it for a long time, make blue and black, and then wash it with saponin water. Belly. Such as taking poisoning and poisoning dead people, eating and pressed during their lifetime, entering the intestine, the test is not permitted, that is, test from the valley road, and the color is seen.
Anyone who tested poisonous dead corpses has been poisonous for a long time, and those who have accumulated them are inside. You must first explore the throat of the dead with silver or copper. However, it is washed from the bottom with hot vinegar. It gradually moves up. It must make the gas transparent. If the hot vinegar is from top to bottom, the poisonous gas forced the heat to go down, and it is no longer visible. Or try to test on the dung door, then use bad vinegar as the opposite.
After careful analysis of the records in the above -mentioned “Washing Collection”, we found that “silver” (the principle of copper pupa poison is equivalent to silver) is an essential tool for the ancients for poisoning. In addition, in order to avoid the correctness of the inspection results in order to avoid the pollution of the silver cymbals, the silver cymbals need to be cleaned with saponin water before testing. It still needs to be cleaned with saponin water.
The reason why the silver cymbals were used to test was because the ancients found that when the silver items met something when they met something in the long -term life practice, they could become black immediately. It is mainly seen in the interaction between silver and sulfide or nitride, sulfide can form dark silver sulfide on the surface of the silverware, making the color of silver or silver needles darker. The poisons commonly used by the ancients are exactly containing sulfur or sulfide, such as poisonous cream (that is, triglyxide dharma). Under the condition of backward ancient production technology, a small amount of sulfur and sulfide are often accompanied by cream, which contains them. After contact with silver, a chemical reaction will cause a layer of blue and black “silver sulfide” on the surface of the silver cymbal. And the darkening of silver is the basis for judging the death of poisoning.
In the “Washing Collection”, the use of the “Silver Disposal Poisoning Method” is divided into three cases:
First, when testing the corpse who died suspected to be poisoned, first extended the cleaned silver sink into the throat of the dead, and then seal the mouth with paper. It can be determined to be poisoned. Conversely, after washing the silver cymbals, it became white, and it was not determined to be poisoned.
Second, for the dead body of poisoning or poisoning, because the food that eats during his lifetime has squeezed the poison into the stomach and the stomach. It will appear blue and black.
The third is to test the poisonous corpse. If you encounter a long period of time, the toxins are deeply accumulated in the body, and the silver cymbals cannot be directly verified. The hot vinegar began to apply it from the lower abdomen of the corpse, and gradually moved up, causing the hot gas to penetrate the body. When the poisonous gas is fumigated, the silver cricket will show black. If you test with silver crickets in the corpse, then the direction of washing with vinegar is exactly the opposite.
The “Silver Disposal Poisoning Method” mentioned in the “Elementary School” was not only inherited by later generations, but also supplemented and developed. In the Qing Dynasty’s “Raider to wash the injustice”, the first way to explore silver crickets further explained: “People are dead, although not to be poisoned, there is no dirt, so the silver 钗 is also black. But it ’s going to go, but the true poisoning, although washed several times, its color is blue and black, and it cannot be white.” In addition, given the texture and color of the silver 钗 often affect the test results, “The Law Museum Correction washing the injustice” will When opposing poisoning, the use of silver -lingering affairs to the people should be used by the official uniformly and specialized for autopsy, thereby eliminating the disadvantages of irregularity of poisoning tools.
The deceased by the poison is more ambiguous. All the cases are determined by silver, and the silver cymbals are false. If you are distinguished by the people, there are many disadvantages. It is necessary to make the artisan make it with foot -colored silver, test it with the official pair of the cards, and observe it.
The Qing Dynasty Wang Youhuai further explained how to prevent the falsification of silver artists and ensure the color of the silver (silver needle) in “Out of the Case”:
Silver needle tests must be made with real silver to credit. Each silvermaker can be used to change the truth, or with a low color matching, that is, it can also get disadvantages. Unaware of it, it is difficult to discern. Only when you have multiple patterns, you can make two or three articles, change the artisan, and draw a furnace to melt. Only after manufacturing and identifying the silver cymbals after the above methods can be used as poisoning.
The commonly used items in the lives of ordinary people can become a poisoning tool, and the ancients invented the simple and easy -to -operate “Silver Disposal Poisoning Method” in the practice of judicial inspection, so that we had to admire the wisdom of the ancient Chinese.
The rice ball sent in handy: “Rice ball test method”
“Both poison can be tentatively tentatively tentatively tentatively tentatively tentatively tentatively tentatively tentatively tentative.” The ancients found that the “Silver Disposal Poisoning Method” was not suitable for all poisoning symptoms in the practice of judicial testing. In this case, silver 钗 can no longer play a poisoning effect. In this case Examine the drug concentration utensils to determine the reality. The Archives of Baodi County, Shuntianfu records a dead body inspection method of died of died in the Jiaqing period of the Qing Dynasty:
In order to report the incident, on the fifth day of December 23rd, according to Gu Shiyu, Gu Shiyu, the Hujiazhuang card of Xiaoxingli Township, Hebei County, Ni Zhelin, who was cut in the tube, said that on the fourth day of the fourth day After being delayed by his husband Liu Wenliang, his wife Liu Li was scolded and scolded, and he died in his died in the room. He dear Hujiazhuang, first survey the village and west streets. There is a Liu Wenliang house in the south of the streets of the street, and two in the house in the grass. , Passing on the back, wearing a green cloth clip, a purple cloth cotton jacket, a pair of blue cloth cotton pants, and a green coat green single pants. According to the corpse husband Liu Wenliang, one of the halogen of the east pot was placed, and when the wife Liu Li was served, he was east and west on the east, and the porcelain bowl was placed on the side. There are still tragic halogen in the altar of the halogen, and the bowls of the bowls are also checked. There are also residual halogen. According to Pan Yan, Pan Yan drank a loud report on the spot, and the dead Liu Li asked Liu Li’s 36 years old. He was four -foot or three inches in length, eight inches wide, six inches tall, yellow, with yellow, closed eyes, mouth, mouth, mouth, mouth, mouth, mouth, mouth Open slightly, there are saliva flowing out, both arms stretching, holding both hands, flat belly, legs stretched, the fitting hairline is scattered, ten nails are bald, and there is no other reason. It is no different, filling in the graphite on the spot, taking the crickets without leakage scars, as well as the corpse loved ones, etc.
In the above case of the death of halogen poisoning, the cause of the death of the death of the death of the dead by the pain of salt halide poisoning “scattered hairline, ten nail baldness” and other dead signs of the dead. The silver lady did not play a role in poisoning. From a scientific point of view, as long as the silver cymbals encounter a lot of sulfur substances, whether this substance is toxic or whether the substance is poisonous, the silver cymbals will become black. Instead, some toxic substances, such as potassium cyanide, sodium cyanide, etc., due to the non -sulfur containing, it will not turn black with silver cymbals. And with the advancement of cream production technology, the frost is refined very pure and no longer contain sulfur and sulfide. The chemical properties of silver metal are very stable, and chemical reactions will not occur with cream under normal conditions. In the case of a sensation in the late Qing Dynasty, Yang Naiwu and the cabbage case, Bi Xiugu (cabbage )’s body was tested several times, and sometimes the silver crickets were dark, and sometimes they couldn’t find traces. The result of the corpse could not be used as a fixed basis, and all of them rely on the confession, which caused a sensational case.
Because of this, when testing the poisonous corpse in the judicial practice of the Qing Dynasty, not only the “silver puppet poisoning method” was used, but the “rice ball test method” was used:
Another method, use rice or sticky rice for three liters of rice, wash with a liter of clean glutinous rice. Broken white, mix glutinous rice, order. Starting in front, on the previous rice sticky rice, holding glutinous rice with three fingers with three fingers like chickens, no cold. Open the corpse, the teeth are placed outside, and three or five pieces of small paper are used to close the corpse, ears, nose, buttocks. It still uses three or five new cotton wool, three or five liters of vinegar, boil with frying with fire, and cook in the vinegar pan for half it. If the dead was poisoned before his lifetime, his corpse was swollen, and the black and bad juice in his mouth naturally sprayed it on the fluff. After removing the froster, the glutinous rice was stenching the evil juice, and it was also black and smelly. This is a poison, if there is no, it is not the same.
Another method is to put the rice in the throat in the middle of the dead, cover it with paper for one or two hours, take out the rice and the chicken to eat, and the chickens die, that is.
To put it simply, for the corpse suspected to be poisonous, in addition to the “silver -bearing poisoning method”, there is also a way to use the processed hot rice balls to plug into the oral cavity of the deceased, and then use paper to seal the corpses. Cover two or three new cotton flocs cooked with vinegar on the corpse, and take it away for an hour. If it is poisoned, the corpse will be swollen and black, and the cotton wool and rice ball will turn black, making a stench smell. Conversely, it is not the symptoms of poisoning. This method of poisoning is a method recorded in the poison of “Washing the Injustice”. In the Song Dynasty, this method had been approved by Dali Temple, and was also recognized by the official book inspection in the Qing Dynasty. The “animal testing method” of poultry was fed directly into the dead of the deceased, and it was recorded in the Qing Dynasty’s “Raider to wash the injustice” in the Qing Dynasty. Obviously, it is more simple and convenient than the “rice ball test method”, and it is also the result of the continuous accumulation of the ancient people’s inspection experience.
In addition to the help of specific items such as silver, rice balls, poultry, etc., the ancients also judged the type of poisoning with various external symptoms after poisoning or poisoning. In the Qing Dynasty’s “Raiders of the Law Museum,” the “On Poison” section recorded that “Any poisonous corpse ulcerated, the bone test was dark black upper and lower, and the chest, heart, roots, and ten fingertips were blue.” In various types of judicial tests, the external characteristics of various poisoning symptoms are recorded. These records are an important method for the ancients to test poisoning and take poisoning and death. The “Poison Articles” in the Law Hall Correction Create the typical characteristics of various poisoning phenomena carefully described the poison, golden silkworm poison, mouse reckless grass poison, Patou poison, cream poison, hook kiss poison, , Birchius poison, fruit treasure gold and stone medicine, alcoholic poison, salt and so on.
From the “Silver Disposal Poisoning Method” to “Rice Dunction Poisoning Method”, from “Washing the Eckless Records” to “Correction of the Law Pavilion”, it not only interprets the wisdom of the ancient people, but also reflects “the body’s skin, the body, the body, the body, The parents of the parents who dare not be destroyed, and the beginning of filial piety. The judicial goals of the judicial goals of the crime are equal, and then achieve fairness and justice, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of the people.
(Author unit: School of Law of the University of Northwest University of Political Science and Law) (□ Lu Hong)
(People’s Court report)