In -depth analysis: The origin and development advantage of lithium iron phosphate batteries!

In -depth analysis: The origin and development advantage of lithium iron phosphate batteries!

Lithium battery is a new high -energy battery developed in the 20th century. It can be understood as a battery that contains lithium (including metal lithium, lithium alloy, lithium ion, lithium polymer), which can be divided into lithium metal batteries (very few production and use) And lithium ion batteries (now in large use). Because it has the advantages of higher energy, high battery voltage, wide working temperature range, and long storage life, it has been widely used in military and civilian small electrical appliances, such as mobile phones, portable computers, cameras, cameras, etc., and some replaces traditional batteries. Essence

01

The origin and development of lithium ion batteries

In the 1970s, Exxon’s M.S.Whittingham used titanium titanium sulfide as a positive electrode material and metal lithium as a negative electrode material to make the first lithium battery.

In 1980, J. Goodnough found that lithium cobaltate could be used as a positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries.

In 19982, R.R.Agarwal and J.R. Selman found that lithium ions have the characteristics of embedded graphite in R.R.Agarwal and J.R.Selman, which are built and reversible. At the same time, the lithium batteries made of metal lithium have attracted much attention. Therefore, people try to use lithium ion to embed the characteristics of graphite to make charging batteries. The first available lithium -ion graphite electrode was successfully triald by Bell Lab.

In 1983, M.Thackey, J.Goodenough and others found that manganese spikes were excellent positive materials, which had low -cost, stable and excellent conductive and lithium -conducting performance. Its decomposition temperature is high, and the oxidation is much lower than lithium cobaltate. Even if short -circuit and over -charging occur, the risk of combustion and explosion can be avoided.

In 1989, A.Manthiram and J.GOODENUGH found that the positive electrode of the adoption of agglomerate at ions will generate higher voltage.

In 1991, Sony released the first commercial lithium -ion battery. Subsequently, lithium -ion batteries innovated the appearance of consumer electronics.

In 1996, PADHI and GOODENOUGH found that phosphate with olive structures, such as lifpo4 (LIFEPO4), is more superior than traditional positive poles, so it has become the current mainstream positive pole material.

LI-agents (li-agents) are developed by lithium batteries. So before introducing Li-ION, first introduce lithium batteries. For example, button batteries are lithium batteries. The positive electrode material of the lithium battery is manganese dioxide or sulflinllullchrium, and the negative electrode is lithium. After the battery assembly is completed, the battery has voltage and does not need to be charged. This battery can also be charged, but the cycle performance is not good. During the charging and discharge cycle, it is easy to form lithium branches crystals, causing short circuits inside the battery. Therefore, this battery is prohibited from charging.

Later, Sony, Japan, invented the lithium battery that negatives with charcoal materials and lithium -containing compounds. During the charging and discharge process, there was no metal lithium, only lithium ions. This is a lithium ion battery.

In the early 1990s, Japan’s SONY Energy Development Corporation and Canada MOLI Energy Company successfully developed a new type of lithium -ion battery, which not only has good performance, but also has no pollution to the environment. With the rapid development of information technology, handheld machinery, and electric vehicles, the demand for high -efficiency power supply has grown sharply, and lithium batteries have become one of the fastest development areas.

02

The structure and principle of lithium ion battery

The main composition of lithium ion batteries:

(1) Positive-active substances mainly refer to lithium cobaltate, lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate, lithium nickel nickel, lithium nickel cobalt manganate, etc. The conductive setting flows generally use aluminum foil with a thickness of 10–20 microns;

(2) Dividation -a special plastic film that allows lithium ions to pass, but it is the insulator of electronics. At present, there are two types of PE and PP and its combination. There is also a type of inorganic solid diaphragm, such as aluminum oxide diaphragm coating is a kind of inorganic solid diaphragm;

(3) Negative-active substances mainly refer to carbon materials with graphite, lithium titanate, or similar graphite structure. Conductance sets generally use copper foil with thickness of 7-15 microns;

(4) Electrolytic liquid -generally an organic system, such as carbonate solvents with lithium hexofluorophosphate, and some polymer batteries use gel -shaped electrolytes;

(5) Battery shell -mainly divided into two types: hard shell (steel shell, aluminum shell, nickel -plated iron shell, etc.) and soft bag (aluminum plastic film).

When the battery is charged, the lithium ions are detached from the positive electrode and embedded in the negative electrode. This requires an electrode in a lithium embedded state before assembly. Generally, the relative lithium is more than 3V and the stable lithium transition metal oxides in the air are used to make positive poles, such as LICOO2, Linio2, Limn2O4.

做为负极的材料则选择电位尽可能接近锂电位的可嵌入锂化合物,如各种碳材料包括天然石墨、合成石墨、碳纤维、中间相小球碳素等和金属氧化物,包括SnO、SnO2、 Tin composite oxide SNBXPYOZ (x = 0.4 ~ 0.6, y = 0.6 ~ 0.4, z = (2 + 3x + 5Y)/2).

The electrolyte uses a hybrid solvent system such as LIPF6 ethylene carbonate (EC), acrylic carbonate (PC), and low viscosity two ethyl carbonate (DEC) carbonate (DEC).

The diaphragm uses polylem microres of pores such as PE, PP, or their composite membrane, especially the three layers of PP/PE/PP not only has a low melting point, but also has a high anti -puncture strength, which plays a thermal insurance role.

The shell is made of steel or aluminum, and the cover component has the function of explosion -proof power.

Basic working principle

When the battery is charged, the lithium -containing compound of the positive electrode is removed from the lithium ion, and the lithium ion moves to the negative electrode through the electrolyte. The negative pole carbon material is layered structure. It has a lot of micropores. The lithium ion that reaches the negative electrode is embedded in the carbon layer of micropores. The more lithium ions are embedded, the higher the charging capacity.

When the battery is discharged (that is, the process of using the battery), the lithium ion embedded in the negative carbon layer is removed and moved back to the positive pole. The more lithium ion is back, the higher the discharge capacity. What we usually call battery capacity refers to the discharge capacity.

During the charging and discharge of lithium ion batteries, lithium ions are in the motion state of the positive electrode → negative electrode → positive electrode. This is like a rocking chair, the two ends of the rocking chair are the poles of the battery, and the lithium ion moves back and forth on both ends of the rock chair. So lithium ion batteries are also called rock chair batteries.

Charger

The charging process of lithium -ion batteries is divided into two stages: constant current charging phase and constant voltage current to reduce charging phase.

Lithium -ion battery over charge and discharge will cause permanent damage to positive and negative electrodes. Excessive discharge causes the collapse of the negative carbon sheet structure, and the collapse will cause lithium ions to be unable to insert during the charging process; over -charging causes too much lithium ion to embed the negative carbon structure, causing some of the lithium ions to release it again.

The lithium -ion battery maintains the best charging and discharge method is shallow. Generally, 60%DOD is 2 to 4 times the cycle life under 100%DOD conditions.

03

Main performance indicators of lithium ion batteries

Battery capacity

The battery capacity is divided into a rated capacity and actual capacity. The rated capacity of the battery refers to the battery at the condition that the battery is at 20 ° C ± 5 ° C, which is represented by C5 at a 5H rate discharge to the termination voltage. The actual capacity of the battery refers to the actual power released by the battery under a certain discharge condition, which is mainly affected by the discharge multiplication and temperature (therefore, strictly speaking, the battery capacity should refer to the charging and discharge conditions).

Capacity units: MAH, AH (1AH = 1000mAh).

Battery

The internal resistance of the battery refers to the resistance that the battery flows through the battery during working. There are two parts: Om internal resistance and polarization internal resistance. The large resistance value of the battery will cause the battery discharge work voltage to decrease, and the discharge time will be shortened. The internal resistance size is mainly affected by factors such as the material, manufacturing process, and battery structure of the battery. Internal resistance of battery is an important parameter for measuring battery performance.

Voltage

The opening voltage refers to the difference between the battery without current flow in the non -working state, that is, the electromotive pipe between the battery positive and negative electrodes. Under normal circumstances, after the lithium -ion battery is fully charged, the opening voltage is about 4.1-4.2V, and the opening voltage after discharge is about 3.0V. The battery can be judged by the battery opening voltage.

The working voltage, also known as the end voltage, refers to the difference between the battery in the working state that the current flows in the circuit, that is, the current flow of the current. In the state of battery discharge work, when the current flows inside the battery, the resistance caused by the internal resistance of the battery does not need to be overcome. Therefore, the working voltage is always lower than the opening voltage, and the opposite is opposite when charging. The discharge work voltage of the lithium -ion battery is about 3.6V.

Discharge platform time

The discharge platform time refers to discharge time to discharge until a voltage at a full battery. For example, the 3.6V discharge platform time is measured for a ternary battery, with a constant voltage charging to a voltage of 4.2V, and the charging current is less than 0.02C, which is fully charged. The discharge time when the discharge to 3.6V is the discharge platform time at the current.

Because the working voltage of electrical appliances using lithium ion batteries has voltage requirements. If it is lower than the required value, it will not work. Therefore, the discharge platform is one of the important criteria for measuring the performance of battery.

Charging and discharge

The charging and discharge multiplied rate refers to the current value required when the battery releases its rated capacity within the specified time. The 1C is equal to the battery rated capacity in terms of value, which is usually represented by letters C. For example, the nominal capacity of the battery is 10AH, then 10A is 1C (1 times), 5A is 0.5C, and 100A is 10C, and so on.

Self -discharge rate

The self -discharge rate, also known as the power maintenance capacity, refers to the ability to maintain the battery stored by the battery under a certain conditions when the battery is opened. It is mainly affected by factors such as the manufacturing process, materials, and storage conditions of the battery. It is an important parameter to measure battery performance.

efficiency

The charging efficiency refers to the degree of chemical energy that the battery consumes into the chemical energy that the battery can be stored into the battery during the charging process. It is mainly affected by battery technology, formula and battery working environment temperature. The higher the general environmental temperature, the lower the charging efficiency.

The discharge efficiency refers to the ratio of the actual power from discharge to the end of the voltage under a certain discharge condition to the ratio of the battery capacity. The lower the discharge efficiency. The lower the temperature, the lower the discharge efficiency.

Cycle life

The battery cycle life refers to the number of charging and discharge of the battery under the power discharge system when the battery capacity drops to a certain specified value. Lithium ion battery GB stipulates that the capacity maintenance rate is more than 60%after the battery cycle is 500 times under 1C.

04

The main classification of lithium -ion batteries

(1) Different electrolyte materials used in lithium batteries, lithium batteries can be divided into two categories: Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) and polymer lithium Ion Battery (LIP).

(2) The charging method can be divided into: non -charging and charging.

(3) The appearance of lithium batteries: there are square lithium batteries (such as commonly used mobile phone batteries) and column shapes (such as 18650, 18500);

(4) Lithium battery outsourcing materials: aluminum shell lithium battery, steel shell lithium battery, soft bag battery;

(5) Lithium battery from positive and negative electrode materials (additives): lithium cobaltate (LICOO2) battery, lithium manganate (limn2O4), lithium iron phosphate battery, one -time manganese lithium dioxide battery

More classifications are shown in the table below:

Way of classification

category

Features/Description

According to the shape of the battery

Cylindrical lithium ion battery

At present, it is mainly 18650 (diameter 18mm, 65mm in length) and 26650 (diameter 26mm, 65mm). It is mainly used in the field of notebooks and electric tools

Square lithium ion battery

There are many types, mainly used in mobile phones, digital cameras and other fields

Deduction lithium ion battery

Can meet the requirements of computers and cameras on high ratio and thinnerization

Use temperature

High -temperature lithium ion battery

It is mainly used in military industry, aerospace and other fields.

Lithium ion battery at room temperature

At present, the commercial lithium-ion battery can only work within the range of -20 ~ 45 ℃

Press the state of electrolyte

Liquid lithium ion battery

Electric quality is organic solvent+lithium salt

Rd

The matrix of the polymer is HFP-PVDF, PEO, PAN and PMMA, etc.

Full Solid Lithium ion battery

Still in the experimental stage

Material

Steel shell lithium ion battery

Well sealing

Aluminum -shell lithium ion battery

light in mass

Aluminum plastic film lithium ion battery

The battery production process is simple, the battery is higher than the energy than energy

Use

Mobile lithium ion battery

The current market capacity is large

Digital camera lithium ion battery

High requirements for battery low temperature performance

Law -ion battery of laptops

At present, the cylindrical shaped, with the development of the computer, in recent years, the trend of replacing the cylindrical battery in square batteries in recent years

Electric vehicle lithium ion battery

The most requirements for the characteristics of the battery, which is relatively hot at present

Classification of positive materials

Lithium cobaltate battery

The most widely used, high vibration density, higher energy than energy, and stable voltage platforms, but it turns out that it is expensive, pollution to the environment, poor safety

Lithium manganese oxide

In the structure of the three -dimensional tunnel, lithium ions can be removed from the spinel stone lattice, which will not cause the structure to collapse, so it has excellent percentage performance and stability. Environmental friendly, but low energy density, high temperature performance

Lithium iron phosphate battery

It is larger than the surface area, the energy density is high, the circulation performance is good, the mass production of materials is difficult to achieve higher consistency, and the low temperature discharge performance is not good

Classified by negative electrode materials

graphite

Good conductivity, high crystallinity, good layered structure suitable for li dehydration, the capacity is above 300mAh/g, the charging and discharge efficiency is more than 90%, a good charge and discharge platform

Soft carbon

Low crystalline, small grain size, good compatibility with electrolyte, low output voltage, no obvious charging discharge platform, high irreversible capacity, basically no commercialization

Hard carbon

LI embedded does not cause expansion, good charging and discharge cycle performance, high ratio capacity, can reach 400mAh/g, and low temperature performance, is an ideal electric vehicle battery negative material. Japan is commercialized.

Lithium titanate

The “zero -change” material, the high potential will not form a lithium branches crystal. At present, the research is hot, but it has not been widely used due to flatulence problems.

Silicon base

Ultra -high comparison capacity, but due to powdering problems, it cannot be really used, and it is still in the laboratory research stage

05

Lithium polymer battery

The positive and negative electrode materials used in polymer lithium batteries are the same as liquid lithium, and the working principle of the battery is basically the same. The main difference between them is that the electrolyte is different. Lithium batteries use liquid electrolytes, while polymer lithium batteries are replaced by solid polymer electrolyte. At present, most of the polymer colloidal electrolyte is used.

The polymer lithium battery can be divided into three categories:

1. Solid aggregate electrolyte lithium battery. The electrolyte is a mixture of polymer and salt. The ion conductivity of this battery at room temperature is low and suitable for high temperature use.

2. Gel polymer electrolytic lithium battery. That is, adding plasticizers and other additives to the electrolyte of the solid polymer to increase the ion conductivity and enable the battery to use at room temperature.

3. Lithium battery of polymer positive electrode material. The conductive polymer is used as the positive electrode material, and its energy is three times the existing lithium battery, which is the latest generation of lithium batteries. Because the liquid electrolyte is replaced by solid electrolytes, compared with liquid lithium batteries, polymer lithium batteries have the advantages of thin and shaped, any area and arbitrary shape, and will not cause safety problems such as leakage and combustion and explosion. Therefore, the aluminum -plastic composite film can be used to make the battery shell, which can increase the capacity of the entire battery. The polymer lithium battery can also be used as a positive material, and its quality will be more than 50 % compared to the current liquid lithium battery. In addition, polymer lithium batteries have improved in terms of working voltage and charging and discharge cycle life.

Advantages of lithium polymer battery:

1. Good safety performance

The polymer lithium battery is packaged in the structure, which is different from the metal shell of the liquid battery cell. Once a safety hazard occurs, the liquid battery cells are easy to explode, and the polymer cells will only be air drums.

2. Small thickness and thinner can be done

Ordinary liquid lithium battery uses the method of customizing the shell first, and then the method of stuffing positive and negative village materials. The thickness of 3.6mm has a technical bottleneck. The polymer cell does not exist. The thickness can be less than 1mm. direction.

3. Light weight

The weight of the polymer battery is 40%lithium -lithium with the same capacity specifications, 20%lighter than the aluminum shell battery.

4. Large capacity

The capacity of the polymer battery is 10-15%higher than the steel shell battery capacity of the same size and 5-10%higher than the aluminum shell battery. Polymer batteries.

5. Internal resistance is small

The internal resistance of the polymer cell is smaller than that of the general liquid cell. At present, the internal resistance of the domestic polymer cells can even be below 35MΩ, which greatly reduces the self -consumption of the battery and extend the standby time of the mobile phone. Levels in line with international standards. This kind of polymer lithium battery that supports large discharge current is an ideal choice for remote control models, becoming the most promising product to replace nickel -metal hydride batteries.

6, shape can be customized

The polymer battery can increase or reduce the thickness of the battery cell according to the needs of the customer. The development of a new battery cell, the price is cheap, the model opening cycle is short, and some can even be tailored according to the shape of the mobile phone to make full use of the battery shell space to enhance the battery to improve the battery. capacity.

7. Good discharge characteristics

The polymer battery adopts colloidic electrolyte. Compared with liquid electrolyte, the colloid electrolyte has a stable discharge characteristics and a higher discharge platform.

8. The protective board design is simple

Because the polymer material is used, the battery cells cannot be fire, no explosion, and the battery cell itself has sufficient safety. Therefore, the protection line design of polymer batteries can consider omitting PTC and fuse to save battery costs. The polymer lithium battery has great advantages in terms of safety, volume, weight, capacity, and discharge performance.

06

Lithium iron phosphate battery

Lithium batteries from positive and negative poles are also divided into: lithium cobaltate (LICOO2) battery, lithium manganate (LIMN2O4), lithium iron phosphate battery

In the first lithium battery launched by Sony, the positive electrode material is lithium cobaltate and the negative electrode material is carbon. Among them, the maximum capacity of the battery is determined that the maximum capacity of the battery and the opening voltage are mainly positive materials.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries refer to lithium batteries that use lithium iron phosphate as a positive electrode material. There are many types of positive materials for lithium batteries, mainly lithium cobaltate, lithium manganate, lithium nickel, and ternary materials, lithium iron phosphate, etc. Among them, lithium cobaltate is currently the positive electrode material used by most lithium batteries, while other positive electrode materials are currently produced in large quantities in the market due to various reasons. Lithium iron phosphate is also one of the lithium batteries. In terms of materials, lithium iron phosphate is also an embedded/dehydration process. This principle is exactly the same as lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are used for lithium secondary batteries. Now the main direction is power batteries. Compared with NI-MH and NI-CD batteries, it has great advantages.

The characteristics of lithium iron phosphate battery

1. Super long life

The circulation life of long life lead -acid batteries is about 300 times, and the highest is 500 times. The cycle life of lithium iron phosphate power batteries has reached more than 2000 times. The same -quality lead -acid batteries are “new half a year, old half a year, maintenance and maintenance for half a year”, at most 1-1.5 years, and lithium iron phosphate batteries will be used under the same conditions and will reach 7-8 years. Comprehensive consideration, the performance price ratio will be more than 4 times that of lead -acid batteries.

2. Safety use

Lithium iron phosphate completely solves the problem of hidden dangers of lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate. Lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate will cause explosion to pose a threat to consumers’ life security under strong collision, and lithium iron phosphate will be strict Safety tests will not explode even in the worst traffic accidents.

It can be quickly charged and discharged at a large current. Under a dedicated charger, the battery can be filled within 40 minutes of charging, and the starting current can reach 2C, while the lead -acid battery has no performance now.

3. High temperature resistance

Lithium iron phosphate can reach 350 ° C -500 ° C, and lithium manganate and lithium cobaltate can only be around 200 ° C. The working temperature range is wide (-20C- + 75C), and the high temperature resistance of the iron-resistant characteristics of the iron can reach 350 ° C-500 ° C and lithium manganate and lithium cobaltate are only about 200 ° C.

4. Capacity

It has a larger capacity than ordinary batteries (lead acid, etc.). The battery can work under the condition that it is often filled with non -complete conditions, and the capacity will quickly be lower than the rated capacity value. This phenomenon is called memory effect. Like nickel -metal hydride and nickel -cadmium batteries, there are memory, while lithium iron phosphate batteries do not have this phenomenon. No matter what state in the battery is, it can be used as it can be charged without charging before charging.

The volume of a lithium iron phosphate battery with the same specifications is 2/3 of the volume of the lead -acid battery volume is 1/3 of the lead -acid battery. The battery does not contain any heavy metals and rare metals (nickel -metal hydride batteries require rare metals), non -toxic (SGS certification), without pollution, in line with European ROHS regulations, and is an absolute green environmental protection battery certificate.

5. No memory effect

The performance of lithium -power batteries mainly depends on positive and negative electrode materials. Lithium iron phosphate is used as a lithium battery material. It has only occurred in recent years. It is July 2005 in the development of large -capacity iron phosphate batteries in China. Its safety performance is unable to compare with other materials. These are the most important technical indicators of power batteries. The 1C charging loop life is 2000 times. A single -section battery is not burned by 30V, and the puncture does not explode. Lithium iron phosphate positive materials make large -capacity lithium batteries more easily in series. To meet the needs of frequent discharge of electric vehicles. It has the advantages of non -toxic, pollution -free, good safety performance, extensive sources of raw materials, cheap prices, and long life. It is an ideal positive material for the new generation of lithium batteries.

Lithium battery is positive extremely iron phosphate material. This new material is not LICOO2 in the past lithium battery positive material; limn2O4; linimo2. Its safety performance is unable to compare with other materials. These are the most important technical indicators of power batteries. The 1C charging loop life is 2000 times. A single -section battery is not burned and does not explode. Stranging does not explode. Lithium iron phosphate positive materials make large -capacity lithium batteries easier to use in series.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries also have their disadvantages: for example, the vibration density of lithium iron phosphate is small, and the volume of lithium iron phosphate batteries of equal capacity is greater than lithium batteries such as cobaltate, so there is no advantage in micro -battery.

In the post -industry era, the popularity of cars exceeded our imagination. While bringing efficient and convenient, a large amount of exhaust emissions also added a lot of pressure to the environment. As oil prices soared, carbon dioxide emissions brought greenhouses to greenhouses. The prominent problems such as effects are urgent to find new energy sources that replace traditional energy. Liquid hydrogen, fuel cells, etc. are good choices, but there are problems such as high prices and immature technology. The cost of using ordinary lead -acid batteries is relatively low, but the weight is heavy, the energy density is low, the service life is short, and there are potential heavy metals. Pollution and other issues.

The new generation of electric vehicles use a new type of lithium iron phosphate battery as its power core. This green environmental protection power has many characteristics and advantages:

1. The safety is quite high

As a car power, safety is the primary consideration of overwhelming everything. Although the safety of ordinary lithium batteries can be basically guaranteed, there is a possibility of fire and explosion under extreme conditions. As a second -generation product of lithium battery, lithium iron phosphate batteries are stable in physical properties themselves, and combined with the protective functions of the built -in overvoltage, under pressure, overcurrent, overcharge, etc. of the battery pack, it is the only absolutely safe in the world at present. Lithium Ion Battery. Due to the use of high -heat stability materials and meticulous process design, battery safety and reliability are greatly enhanced. Compared with the explosive phenomenon that may occur in the lithium battery, lithium iron phosphate batteries will not explode even if they are thrown in fire. High temperature stability can reach 400-500 ° C, which guarantees the high safety of the battery; it will not cause explosion or combustion due to excessive charging, high temperature, short circuit, and impact. After strict safety testing, it will not explode even in the worst traffic accidents.

2. Low life long cost

As a power battery, the service life (cycle performance) is closely related to the overall cost of use. Compared with the cycle service life of about 500 times of ordinary lithium batteries, the lithium iron phosphate battery can be charged and discharged by 1500 times at room temperature, and the capacity maintenance rate is 95 %. Above, and the cycle life of 50%capacity has reached more than 2,000 times. The continuous mileage life of the battery is greater than 500,000 kilometers. It can be used for about five years. It is 8 times that of lead -acid batteries. About 4 times the lithium acid battery. In addition, its manufacturing cost itself is lower than ordinary lithium batteries, which will undoubtedly greatly reduce the use and maintenance cost of electric vehicles.

At the same time, the discharge performance of lithium iron phosphate battery is also very excellent, the power curve is stable, and the ability to resist strong. After the ordinary lithium battery cell is lower than 3.2V, the discharge is over, which may cause scrap. However, at 2.8V, the lithium iron phosphate battery also has energy release at 2.8V, and there is no problem with scrapping below 2.5V.

3. Easy to use

We know that there is a strong memory effect of nickel -metal hydride and nickel -cadmium batteries. Ordinary lithium batteries also have certain memory effects. It is necessary to try to “full and full”, which will bring inconvenience to the daily use of electric vehicles. This phenomenon is small self -discharge; no memory effect, no matter what state of the battery is in, it can be used with it without charging before charging. At the same time %about. The processing problem after the end of the battery life is also worthy of our attention. Lithium iron phosphate batteries do not contain any heavy metals and rare metals, non -toxic, non -polluting, and in line with regulations. If it is not treated properly after its abandonment, it will form secondary pollution on the environment, and the lithium iron phosphate material will not be polluting no matter in production and use.

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