Film “Babai” all forces in optical equipment

Recently, domestic war film “Babai” is being aggressively among the various types of critics after another. Discussion of historical authenticity, incitement of national sentiment, there is a movie to explore the artistic, and so there is criticism of acting skill.

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Today we do not do these discussions, we are from a very small (familiar) point of view and take a look at “Babai” movie, during the Battle of Shanghai China war, the forces of the parties to appear in the optical equipment. (Most of the content to rely stills only speculate, if any mistakes, please correct me)

First of all, the movie telescope ordinary Shanghai residents (rich people) use, and hawkers selling telescope.

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In 1937, China does not have the ability to create their own military binoculars. So the film Shanghai wealthy used it with telescopic telescope might be produced in the UK after London 1920 dollond telescopic version brass telescope.

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Kepler telescope is the structure we often see in the movies that pirates use. After adding tripod can also be used to do general astronomical observation.

In fact, in 1930, the national government was ever purchased a number of the world’s leading optical equipment to the German Zeiss factory, it contains a large number of Zeiss Silvamar 6X30 binoculars. But because of improper use and maintenance, most of these devices can not be used because of the lens mold, only a few part fitted out to the troops. For example, as the head of the 88 division telescope German armed division of Xie Jinyuan used in the movie, it is the Zeiss Silvamar 6X30.

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Xie head shots did not shoot, they cut to this still relatively clear

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Zeiss Silvamar 6X30.

And in World War II, the German equipment is this binoculars. Of course, because of the need of the war, in addition to the Zeiss plant, there are also many other German factories began to design and manufacture this is ideal for battlefield observation, command, and the man used a telescope models. for example:

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Hensoldt Hensoldt

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Voigtlaender Voigtlander

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Rodenstock G.Rodenstock

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Busch Busch

1933 Ordnance Department, Dr. Yu Dawei National Government in Germany Zeiss factory internship studentsZhou ZixinTo discuss and establish Zeiss optics plant maintenance plant in China’s possibilities. Here foreshadowed start China optics.

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Zhou Zixin

Ordnance Department Technical Division in October 1935 in accordance with the Zeiss plant suggestions and cooperative approach, proposed the establishment of optical repair shop program to Ministry of war. September 1936, the Ministry approved the establishment of the Preparatory Office of Military military optical equipment factory, in March 1937, Zeiss factory sent guidance and training of repair personnel repair work began to repair damage to the troops stationed in Nanjing optical equipment. At this time, the domestic war broke out on the full.

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Four lines guarding the warehouse war, as of the end of the Battle of Shanghai, after the fall of Shanghai, Nanjing national government has not considered suitable for the construction of military factories, it plans to build factories moved to Chongqing. So off to the “Babai,” the story takes place, China’s own optical factory is still not established.

At that time the German optical technology, leading the world. The telescope movie Japanese officers used, it is “Japan Optical Co., Ltd.” production of “thirteen years style 6X24”, is the sun and the company’s engineers with Zeiss Zeiss imitation of the Japanese model.

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Thirteen years type 6X24

Japan, as Germany was the “best disciple”, in the early twentieth century had sent a large number of foreign students studying in Germany optical technology. Just a dozen years after coming back, Japan has established:

“Japan Optical Co., Ltd.” 1917

(Now Nikon Nikon)

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“Asahi Optical Co., Ltd.” 1919

(Now Pentax Pentax)

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“Takachiho Optical Seiko Co., Ltd.” 1919

(Now Olympus Olympus)

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“Chiyoda optical Seiko Co., Ltd.” 1928

(Now Minolta Minolta)

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“Seiki Optical Co., Ltd.” 1933

(Now Canon Canon)

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“Enomoto Optical Co., Ltd.” 1934

(Now Fuji Fujifilm)

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During the war of aggression against China, “thirteen years-style” 6X24 because the demand for larger, currently can see daylight production (now Nikon), there Xuguang production (now Pentax), has Enomoto light yield (now Fujitsu) and other different factory model, equipped with a large number of non-commissioned officers to the Japanese army during World War II general.

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In addition, the army also appeared in the film seized a Japanese 4X40 “ninety-three style” telescope, the lens is relatively fast, did not shoot well. But the structure of 4X40 (Galilean) is rather special, very easy to identify.

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It was after 1933 “Mukden Incident”, in order to allow the Japanese infantry and cavalry sergeant also can be equipped with binoculars, searching for information and observations projectiles, we developed a low cost, light weight 4 × 40mm telescope. , Each with a cost of 30 yen, a lot of equipment on the common soldier. So the first four lines of the Japanese army stormed the warehouse after being exterminated, 88 division while cleaning the battlefield got the telescope of some of 4X40.

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4X40 “ninety-three style” Telescope

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Use ordinary Japanese soldiers 4X40

Although Japanese soldier system telescope production of sophisticated technology, but slightly smaller than the pupil diameter, poor in low light conditions results. “Ten years style” for the Japanese army field artillery observation vehicles with standard equipment in the “98-style” 7 times the telescope is also made of imitation Zeiss telescope, also known as 7 × 50mm telescope. Many observers use is the Zeiss 7X50, or Leitz (now Leica) of 7X50 (movie camera did not shoot too fast) on the airship, but rather an artillery observation mirror to a shot, but I do not know the source If there is an expert to know, see the comments section.

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The viewer is not aware of the source

7 × 50mm diameter telescope, good low-light observation effect, a lot of rationing in the Japanese navy, also known as “7 type aircraft.” For example, Chinese people are more familiar with the Japanese Combined Fleet commander Admiral Yamamoto extremely fond of this telescope.

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Xuguang produced seven aircraft

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Yamamoto

Other models are no longer expand, when optical technology in Japan, indeed the aspirations of the world’s top three levels (as if still is).

而彼时的中华民国,1936年3月,Zhou Zixin利用兵工署购买价值30余万元的观测设备的机会,为清华大学留德公费生龚祖同谋求了到德国亨索尔特(Hensoidt)厂实习6个月的机会,龚祖同即借验收产品的机会,进入该厂学习透镜和棱镜的加工技术,同时考察光学加工及光学玻璃生产情况。

But then German Factory “Chinese industrial backwardness, not manufacturing optical instruments” as an excuse refused, in 1937, only turn to buy a batch of optical raw materials from Switzerland (6X30 telescope contains 3000 parts) sent to China. At a time when mainland China has entered a period of Anti-Japanese War.

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After the Battle of Shanghai, Nanjing has been impossible to complete the construction. Ordnance Department formally notified the Preparatory Office of optical factories to Sichuan. November 12, “Babai” End of story, end of the Battle of Shanghai. Japanese captured Shanghai, to step up preparatory office relocation, all the personnel and equipment moved to Chongqing.

Taking into account was the southeast coast of the main Japanese ports have been blocked, purchase of materials and equipment from Europe can only be delivered to the port of Haiphong in Vietnam, and then shipped from Vietnam Railway to Kunming, Chongqing, coupled with humid climate is not suitable for optical equipment production and preservation of the national government moved to optical factory in Kunming, January 1, 1939, China’s first military optics factory – the twenty-second arsenal was formally established. (Remember that 3000 transferred from Vietnam to Kunming from across the sea Switzerland 6X30 telescope parts it?) Then produced from the second twelve famous “formally telescope.” Since then, China has its own military optical telescope.

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Formally telescope each period

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Mr. Jiang is very fond of this telescope, always carry

In addition to the telescope, “Babai” Also there are some optical sight. But the strange thing is that four lines of warehouses so for sniper positions, the director does not set the sniper war lens. When the opening, there is an army with a sight not see any guns, but in the movie did not seem too open shot. Before the final negotiations gave a shot, then I felt the gun a bit strange, I feel like German armed, like the US military gun.

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At that time the National Revolutionary Army 88 division is a wholly German armed division, in theory, should be configured M1924 rifle, rifle or Kar.98. However, according to the play’s setting, they also absorb some of the tour soldiers scattered Yong, and seized a Japanese equipment, so in the movie, a little chaos into firearms, there Gew.98, Springfield rifles, Hanyang, officially, 38 large cap and so on, but these rifles are prototypes Mauser rifle Gew.98, and improved Karbiner 1898, referred to Kar.98k. Different points in the gun body is no more than the length of the palm rest position, hit the pinhole, the specific details of the vertical adjustment of the flat type rear sight and the like.

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The standards of the German armed division should be about 6% after adjustment precision rifle with ZF4 or ZF41 sight. Rationing was already very mature accurate sniper shooter war use. But the sight ZF4 structure is such that, while the movie is more like the sight of the US Springfield rifle. (Later checked and found that the United States did in World War II, when a number of aid given to the Chinese battlefield M1917)

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But it does not matter, anyway, the movie is not anything about our military snipers. But rather 97 sniper rifle used by Japanese sniper, shot and killed the Green Gang disciple aiming process to send the phone line, called a quasi shot.

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Gew.98 rifle sight configuration (Japanese three eight cover section is counterfeit), although the investigation as rifles, the shortened Karbiner98 Barrel improved, referred Kar.98K. Has become a generation of classic (it may be because the chicken with the fire of it).

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In fact, during World War II sniping has been very mature, there are many similar stories and firearms, such as the Soviet Moxin Na Gan with sight, such as the British Lee – Enfield with sight. For example the Japanese-1997 of formula with sight. Effective range firearms at the time to have about 1,000 meters, with the precision of sight, you can complete precision shooting 200-600 meters.

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Real history ‘Babai’, as was the warehouse four lines of bank warehouse, almost indestructible in light weapons, the location of the warehouse and four lines in the edge of the concession, the Japanese did not dare to use heavy weapons bombing. After 88 division led to more than 400 defenders, the true history of only a few dozens of people died in the battle, and the movie is not so exaggerated, most people have completed the “political” mission, to evacuate the settlements.

But the entire Battle of Shanghai, the before and after military troops into battle front more than 700,000 to 200,000 casualties of the cost, in exchange for 40,000 Japanese casualties, the Japanese army in Shanghai bloody fight in three months, barely capture the military’s position. So that the countries in the world for China’s anti-Japanese strength and determination, generated impressive attitude, but the Japanese did not win a long battle, “three-month occupation of China” hopes. In the three-month Battle of Shanghai thrilling among the whole China gather up and down out of a consensus that in order to resist the Japanese invasion of China, “even though the war to a soldier shot, also will not terminate the war.”

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For thousands of years, the Chinese nation in the face of peril moment burst out, “I am in my Blade Heart” national cohesion, it is engraved on the bones of this great civilization spirit. Huns have faced when it appeared; and they had to face pirates, it appeared; in the future no matter who the face, it will still come out from the crest of a lot of Chinese people in the background, and this spirit, this is the emboldened nation.