Wu Xinyi comes “Lu You’s rural world” | From “poetry” to “historical materials”

Wu Xinyi

“Rural Rural World”, Baowei, Social Sciences, September 2020, 242 pages, 79.00 yuan

“Creating is interested in entertaining poets, supplying new poetry”, this is a winter evening at 8.37 years, Lu Youwei wrote in Yin Yin

(“Jiannan Poetry” Volume 15 “Winter Night 吟”)

. This “poetry” is the rural scene in front of him. At this time, it has been three years from the landing of the land. He speaks, he will be with him in the future, and then don’t do his “Changan Meng”. At this time, I still can’t think of it. He will come back to the official, and I don’t even think of his “Poetry” crystallization, it will become “historical materials” today.

Recently, I am fortunate to read the new “rural world” of Mr. Weimin.

(Social Science Document Press, September 2020)

. The book is mainly the text material left by Lu You – mainly poetry – for the material, study the country society of Zhejiang Yinhui, the Son Dynasty. The book includes three aspects, one is to explore all aspects of land travel individuals, including economic sources, food and clothing, etc.; the second is to explore the role of the scholars in Lu Tour in the countryside, which is the social role; third is the production of rural economic production , Living habits, rough faces of folk customs. The content of these three levels is interlaced in the chapters of the whole book. There are six chapters of this book, all of the poems of four words plus land. If you take the liberty, you will be summarized in a slightly popular statement, then the first chapter outlines the population, agricultural economy and rural environment of the Southern Song, inserted many authors to visit the photo and historical maps of landing land, reflecting Historical geography method; Chapter 2 discusses the management method of rural organization, including how the Southern Song Dynasty government implements the rural control, what is the marriage relationship between the countryside, the neighborhood relationship; the third chapter details the Southern Song Mountain Plateau Agriculture The economic situation, from the most basic rice planting, to wheat, silkworm, beans, etc.; Chapter 4 is to analyze the source of landing family economy; Chapter 5 introduces the market situation of the mountains, there is no continuation of the rural market to the grassroots market The old saying, but the “city ship” as a clue, according to the actual situation, the rural market is divided into three levels of the center, the middle, and the grassroots level; Chapter 6 explores the social role of landing in the country world.

Materials studying poetry as historiography is the biggest feature of the book, and this is not easy. Text, history relationship has always been close, but this relationship is from the novel of poetry. It is a huge change in the empirical historical record after modern times. The biggest difficulty is that there is no purpose for documentation when the literary works creates, there is an exhibition, moderator, imitation, set. This is especially typical in poetry, so when using a verse as a historical material, it must first judge whether the poem is realistic, how to realize. For example, Du Fu “Maojiang Head” “Want to come to the city to see the north” The explanation of people, thinks that this is the meaning of 即 即, in order to write inner panic, and quote “Xijing Fu” sentence certificate, use “Going to call the North but come to the East” “” I want to return to South Wangbei, etc., proven this Du Shi. Although Chang’an City’s layout is indeed, as Chen Yuxue said, but in this Du Shi, explanation seems to be slightly weak, and the “hope” is explained as “direction”.

(This case recently happened to “Mr. Wang Shui Zhao” “Walnuts” – and talks about the meaning of Qian Shu and Chen Yu’s academic intersection. “From” Qian Shu’s academic life “, Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company 2020)

. In the previous “Song Dynasty City Research” (2014), the author was talked about the study of poetry, it should be cautious when studying poetry: “…… The historical information of the scholars can use the literary works of the handed down … … Many records have obvious literature exaggeration and uncertainty. If the Northern Song Dynasty, Mao Wei is said to be the crowd of Vietnam ‘account, do not have the ten million “, South Song Wang Yang said the population of Xiangyang County is a thousand million people. Survived by the House. Liu has described the population of Ezhou, also known as the ‘Ten Million’, ’10 million’, ‘Million’ of the literary doctor, is of course not specific Data, just to express a lot of artists. If this man actually introduces them to the history of the history, it is not allowed to be ancients. Another person describes the population of the capital, generally boasts to ‘million home, Northern Song Dynasty Sun Haozheng praised the many population of Suzhou, saying ‘covered from Changqing Xuanhe, more than seventy-generation for three hundred years, Wu people did not see the soldiers, revealing the raising, to forty five thousand people’. Lu To description Chengdu urban population, First, ‘Nine Millions’, Refame to the 10,000-city in the city, Zhumenjia’s heret is “. In fact, the population of these cities may reach how large, non-useful information, very careful However,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, I have helplessly put it like. “In this book, the author also said in the introduction:” The poem is a distance from the village and the real world depicting the poems, and the rural and real world depicting the verse. ” However, the author quoted Lin Yan’s paper

吴心怡评《陆游的乡村世界》|从“诗材”到“史材”的距离

(“The hometown and self-consciousness of Luyou in his later years – the proposal of the Southern Song Dynasty”, “Journal of South China Normal University (Social Science Edition)”, 2016, 1st)

It is believed that Lu You will write poetry in writing a diary, so there is a certain realistic feature, so use landing poetry as a research material, there is a certain feasibility. This is also very recognized.

The difficulty of poetry is a history of historical materials, not only in the literaryness of poetry itself, but also the main experience of poetry is subjective experience, limited to the life of the poet, can not provide a historical study. Lu Toy is a poetry is very rich, most of which is written after returning to Yin Yin in his later years, and the poems of Shantin’s “Jiannan Poetry” in his later years have exceeded sixty-five volumes. In the face of such a massive poem, most people will find a lot of materials that can be utilized, but in fact, these materials are very limited in the tasks of the Southern Song rural villages, and they can provide: “According to the poem of landing The text understands the ‘rural world “in his mind, it is impossible to refraction and one side … he referred to is only the one corner of the rural grassroots society,”

(This book No. 10 to 11)

Therefore, when the book is studying the countryside of landing, the other literature in the Song Dynasty often uses the existing economic history research, historical geography research and the poems of landing of the land, plus the author’s field visit, from poetry Several “incomplete puzzles” departure and painted the basic outline.

吴心怡评《陆游的乡村世界》|从“诗材”到“史材”的距离

Earlier this year, the author has published a single papers with the same name of this book in “Journal of Wuhan University (Philosophy Edition)”, which can be seen as an extension of this paper. The original papers are divided into four sections of the home, livelihood, market, and role. This book has added another chapter of the summary of the historical geography of the mountain plain. Chapter III of General Agricultural Production Status “Agricultural Economy: Rice Unblocked 秧 麦 Autumn”. In addition to the expansion of the content (such as discusses the important means of transport of the rural market “City ship”, the materials used by the monographs are doubled compared to the paper, and the writing angle is also slightly transformed. Single paper is closely to the countryside of Lu You, is a rural society in the minds of landing, and this book is a monograph, but also provides a fulcrum for the research of rural areas in the Song Dynasty. The study no longer serves the study of Lu You person, but as a case of the Southern Song Division research, it will quprise some historical materials such as localization, and the research results in existing agricultural history. When explaining the historical material, the book is diverged to multiple angles than the paper. For example, the original papers “livelihood”, the field, the field, the wheat, the diet, this is the main point of life and economic situation in landing poems, to the monograph, the authors reinstall these from different angles Text: In the first chapter, after introducing the Lakeshan profile of the Shan Clunin, the location and scale of landing residential estate is to use the land of the land of the land as a typical case of the Village of Southeast Water Township, Southeast Waterway; In the three chapters, the rice woodwood production situation under Luke pen has become a historical material for studying agricultural technology in the Song Dynasty; The purpose is to show the economic situation of the family of the Si Schikai family in the Southern Song Dynasty.

In addition to a single papers, this book also has potential associations with the authors’ past urban history research. In the past, the author’s “Song Dynasty City Research” started from specific, meticulous historical facts, explored all aspects of the urban development of the Song Dynasty. Today, this “landing country world” is in the study of the country in the Song Dynasty. This is probably not only from the author’s transfers, it is also a comprehensive need for the study of the Song Dynasty society. The two Song Dafu moved to the city’s phenomenon, and many studies have studied in the academic community. Due to the rise of the city, many scholars will choose the city to live in the convenience of life, and Lu Tour is specially returned to the representative of the rural residents, often in the poem. Self-proclaimed “I don’t enter the city for half a year”

(“Jiannan Poetry” Volume 5th “Don’t enter the city for half a year to make short songs”)

“Three years without entering the city”

(“Jiannan Poetry” Volume Seventy-eight “Senior New Year Rhyme”)

The trend with the city has formed a distinct contrast. The author has an impact of the development of landing township, perhaps the effects of urban history research. Although there is no independent entry, this book does not think about how land Tour should deal with the inconvenience of hometown relative to the city’s life. For example, how do rustic people get external information? Here, the author mentioned that Lu You was written in the “兀” in the first year of Jiatai’s first year, “Wen Dynasty”, after hearing Lin’an fire, the fire is more than enough, so the fire is heavy, so he will hear the gure area

(This book “146-147)

. This makes people think that in the “Song Dynasty City Research”, the fire is listed as the second largest bottleneck that hinders the development of the city, and also collapses the Southern Song Dynasty to Anfang’s fires into the table, and analyzes. Another example is, for example, how is the disadvantage of the hometown doctor’s descendants? As early as the “Song Dynasty City Research”, he said that Liang Geng’s research was introduced. On the Song Dynasty, the city’s city is related to the imperial examination. At that time, the education of the imperial examination has already had a professional tendency, so that it is the home of the Scholars, will also Education chooses to choose a better urban residence in education (Liang Geng, “South Song Director and City”, “New Historiography”, No. 2, 1990). Chapter 6 of this book discusses the identity role of Lu You, mentioned this tendency: “For the care of the children and grandchildren, Lu You have to invest quite energy and financial resources. Shao Xi five years (1194) Winter, he describes his son into the city Ask, ‘children’s broken hat, the old parents, the old furnace night painting “. The poem does not explain which son is estimated to be a child. Bo Xue, Lu Tour, the children and grandchildren are preparing for the exam, but don’t ask others to advise This may have a reason for landing of the self-old and energetic, and more importantly, there is a specialized career in the Southern Song Dynasty. There are many skills that should be subject to the exam, and the city is spreading about The centers of the Tudo movement, this is also a major reason why the scholars mentioned earlier in the foregoing. “(This book is 157 to 158 pages) In addition, the study of rural markets in this book is also the author of the Song Dynasty. The market research has formed complementary. In the past, in the “Song Dynasty City Research”, the Song Dynasty, the Song Dynasty, emphasized the supervision and management of the Song Dynasty, and emphasized that the management of the rural market was relaxed, and the oil price floating under the Luo Tour pen was an example, although This is not the author of this book about the most important point of view of the rural market, but it can be seen that some associations with the previous work.

Lu Tour, who is a social role in the country world, is a crucial content. If this part is removed, it is not “landing country world”, but “the countryside under Luo Tour”. On the title, the author used the word “Appearance”, and called Lu Tour to come to the country to afford to live. With regard to “Confidential”, the author explained this: “The idle official is scattered in the township. The Song people call it ambassador. They themselves constitute an important class in the country society, worthy of attention.” (This book page 11 “Introduction”) In the sixth chapter of this book, the authors use the “Sifang Subject to ask” “Social Role” three sections, how to exercise their responsibility for national politics, “Social role” The inheritance of culture, and how to make three problems in rural areas. The “Quartet Safety” section of this book, with the help of the “Jiannan Poetry” to the Singing Singing Singing, showing that Lu Tour often visits, letters from friends, the letter, acquisition time, integrated these poems, this book believes that Only when the situation is more critical, Lu Tour will use his information network, try to make a difference, such as the serious flood in the autumn of Qiuxing in the eight years, Lu You will write poetry in this year, “Zhu Yu can Plays in the disaster relief work, it is recommended that the court is suspended on tax problems. In addition, most of them deliberately maintain their distance from politics. I have always commented that Lu To, I tend to emphasize him to actively enter, or say “hot”, this narrative, maybe and return to the invitation of Han Yu in the end of the year, and Zhu Xi is the same as the current statement. related. In addition, in the past 100 years, the choice of landing poems highlights his patriotic poems, ignores the works of his life and even a lot of hunting in daily life and even “Light View”, and the image of “Fighters” covered. Therefore, this section is very novel based on the overall work of Lu You, challenges the mainstream people’s understanding of landing. Next, “Eight World is Confucianism” section, mainly discussed Lu Toyi’s poems, the complex contradictions in the industry, and can’t put down the state of the age. In the “Social Role” section, it is summarized the social activities of Lu Toy in a rural landscape. First, he is present in the rural areas, applying medicine, to the neighborhood, and the second is he and place. The relationship between the government, the impact on local religion. Here, this book believes that Lu You can determine the appointment and dismissal of Lu Jiaan Gongdean, but the attitude towards the national regime in the local staff, the attitude of landing is respectful, and he is not the core of the various power relations of the country society. Therefore, the author positions Lu You as “elder” and “high”, as a general evaluation.

Landing tour

The author is historian, the position of this book is also monograph, but because Lu Tour itself is a poetry, it is the next book for the interpretation of the poems, this paper is slightly talking about the meaning of literary research. The poems of landing are usually read as literary works, and this book is from History’s vision, and it provides an understanding of some nouns that are easy to skilled. For example, Lu Toyi is often written to “Peng Rice”, such as “Bai Raise, Ming Sang Wen” (“Jiannan Poetry” Volume 58 “Buju Sanshan has been a sense of five words “)” White Rice debut is new, Taicang Moon, Chen Chen “(” Jiannan Poetry “volume six second” village drink “) There is no “white rice”, and the author has absorbed the results of agricultural history research. According to the rice planting situation in the plain area of ​​the Shanke Plain, according to the “Jiatai City”, the “white rice” should be early white rice , Or short-termized seed cycles, mature early and white, modern agriculture, known as early messenger. Then, if there is a “sixty-day white first” sentence, Lu You can pay self-interest in the “60th day white, rice famous, often familiar with the second year of June”, according to early city ” Ten days “, the” 60th day white “here should be this variety (page 72 of this book). After understanding this knowledge, it can also revealed that there is a poem with “white rice”. It can be found that these versions are also the example of using new words in poetry in the poem in his later years. “One sentence, is a rare martial art noun to organize the opponent, more refreshing. The study of history provides a new idea for the literary interpretation of landing poetry.

Also on agriculture and diet, Luyou poetry mentioned “” (Volume 4 “” provincial things “)” Cao Tei Family “(Volume Bayi” shoulder Lou Sangyin’s things over Chen Bay to Chen Mingyu small market to Shen Nai “), etc., also claimed to In the garden, the garden, such as the “North River Green Pai District” (Volume 4, “Zhaoyuan, the tenure, the husband is expensive and strong, and the poor, Zhao Yan is rhyme”) “Variety is the zone” (Volume 74 “eight 14 吟 “) and so on. The author also noted this phenomenon, thinking from the “豆 家 家 乐” The rice is a meal is the local poor, and according to “shake but cook the mountains, the eyes of the murder” (Volume Sanqi “Zeju”) “quite whate boat, Dongcun Toy “(Volume 4” Autumn Ten Ten “) Judging the RATA planted in the mountains and wetlands. “East Village Pathfinder” is a realistic pen method, and local should do place. A sentence of “the teeth shake but cook the mountains”, telling the ripening of the scorpion, and it is more suitable for the elderly, so Lu You called himself in him, but also trustworthy. However, if you read this sentence from the perspective of literary research, “Take the Mountain Causa” can be seen as a model. Qian Zhonglian injected the “Rice of the Rice” in the poem “The Village is in drunk,” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “” “: ‘My Wen Mountain under Wo Ye, there is a squat.'” Justice “: 鸱, 芋. …” Huayang Guo Zhi “Cloud: Wenshan County An Shangxian has Dalong Ruyi. According to: Wen Mountain is the mountain. “In the poem, the criminals used to use the martyrs, representing Du Fu, there is” I love to kneel, Jun Si thousand miles “(” Give a different He Lange “)” Zihui Linglia, Caucasian Lu Pullinglian (“Autumn, Fufu, Hui Zhi, Zheng Zheng, Li Bin, a hundred rhyme”). The “山” in Lu Toyi is very likely to use Du Fu’s verse. In addition to “山”, “豆 豆” is also described in the set of diet, “Han Shu, 方 进 本” On the eve of the eighth day, the thunderstorm “said” said “dragonfly and replenishing 茆 茆, 饭 豆,” Bean meal, bean rice cockroaches are also a set of cluts with bean rice, and this set is very early. “Warship National Policy · Han Shi” said that South Korea’s agriculture and diet folklore, “Mountain, grain, non-wheat and beans, folk food, big mating”, Lu Jia “new language · “There is also the text” Master Chen, Cai Zhihe, Bean Meil, Sufficient Lakes “. It may be because these plants can be free to grow in the wild, and the poor does not need to have their own fields and complex production tools. There is another poem, but there is a rice to send official warehouse, bean rice, sweet like a honey, and is similar to the foregoing episode. There are many poems in the Luyou verse, and there are many verses of the gentle, maybe in the home plant as a garden arrangement and daily diet, but literature exaggeration, the impact of the set is also unable to exclude, the two are not contradictory, It is a complementary relationship. In order to better understand poetry, poets, era, and the environment, perhaps, it is necessary to shuttle each other between literature methods and historical methods.

Finally, this book is still slightly somewhat regrettable on the line. For example, this book Chapter III, Section 3, “Delivery Manor”, a paragraph of text and Chapter 3, Section 3, “Two Paragraph of the Nature of the 98th to 1990s” The content is more similar, which may be an accidental negligence that is adjusted in the chapter adjusted by the paper expansion. On the 158th page, although Lu You is trying to overcome the inconvenience of the countryside, let the children and grandchildren keep in the industry, but until the grandchildren are not successful in the exam, “this can become the vertical liquidity of people in the imperial practice (social status) ) A case that increased significantly than before, but with reason, it seems that it seems to be a decline in social fluidity, fear is a pen. There is also a small amount of the incorrect, such as the 119th page, “Jiannan Poetry” volume, seven 〇 “The 16th of the first month, sent to Mei City, the show”, “selling medicine “The Bozi” should be “selling medicine only scholars’ s”, the first forty-six page “I have a renewal” should be “ingredients more than enough”, whitening, looking forward to the future revision.

Editor in charge: Peng Shanshan

Author: Xu Yichao