Is Edison invented the bulb? Or incandescent lamp?

Thomas Edison participated in the invention of many breakthrough devices, such as cameras, microphones and vocalists. But the most famous is the improvement of the light bulb, and this innovation sent the light to millions of households. Photography: George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

Written article: Erin Blakemore

The container containing chemicals leaked, and the train car was on fire. When he was young, Thomas Alva Edison had done a lot of work, and the reasons for being fired repeatedly were as long as the patent list he held many years later.

The future inventor has changed the development process of hiring and firing his various industries with countless breakthrough ideas. In 1931, the New York Times wrote that the young man “was once a (telegram) operator who could not find a job.”

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

It turns out that Edison’s most famous is the legendary work ability, and the classic famous sayings that have been repeatedly repeatedly repeatedly: genius is “one percent of inspiration, plus 99 percent of sweat.” His later inventions defined the modern world and improved other breakthrough innovations. For example, he improved the bulbs, and in the end people around the world could use electricity.

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

Let’s take a look at how the “Monro Parker’s Wizard” is well -known worldwide, and why he is still considered the greatest inventor ever.

A curious young man

Thomas Alva Edison was born in Ohio in 1847. He spent his childhood in the Hunchon Port Michigan. He only received a short formal education there. His mother was a teacher who taught him to study at home since he was 7 years old. Edison read widely. In his childhood adventure, Edison had boldly conducted chemical experiments in his parents’ basement; his biographical author called it “almost explosion, it was simply a disaster.”

The picture above is 14 years old. Young Thomas Alva Edison has a lot of breakthrough ideas, making him often distracted from daily monotonous work. Figure: National Park Service

With curiosity and enterprising spirit, 12 -year -old Edison found a “news hawker” job -railway company hired him to sell snacks, newspapers and other things to train passengers. Edison was not satisfied with the sale of newspapers, and he planned to print it himself. He founded and published the first newspaper “Grand Trunk Herald” to make a printed on the train. He also did chemical experiments on the train.

At the age of 15, Edison was fired because he would plan experiments and inventions while working in his mind; so he became a mobile telegram of Xilian Company, and then moved to New York and opened his studio. The telegram became Edison’s first batch of patent inventions. In 1874, 27 -year -old Edison invented the quadruple telegraph, and the telegraph could send four telegraphs at the same time, which improved the efficiency of the entire industry without building a new telegram line.

On February 13, 1880, a light bulbs drawn by Thomas Edison. A year ago, the inventor showed his durable light bulbs to hundreds of people in his Menalo Parker laboratory. Figure: FOTOSEARCH/GETTY Images

Becoming Monro Park’s Wizard

During this period, Edison married his employee Mary Studi, and in 1876, they moved to Monel Parker, New Jersey in 1876. This rural area is an ideal place for the new laboratory, and the laboratory reflects the spirit of the owner’s innovation and agglomeration: this is a research and development institution, Edison and his partners (he kindly calls them “clumsy guys”) Can build everything they think.

Edison continued to improve the telegram. When studying the machine that recording the telegram information, he wanted to know if he could record the sound. So he invented a machine that could convert the vibration of the language into the deresses on the paper.

In 1877, 30 -year -old Edison said the first two lyrics of “Mary Have a Lamb” to the device, and then played it with a handle. He has just invented the so -called “Edison Voice Speaker”. In the same year, Edison invented an improved microphone transmitter to help improve the phone.

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

The 4 -meter -high incandescent lamp replica stands on the Thomas Edison Memorial Tower in Monshot, New Jersey. The bulb needs 2.7 tons of glass and 3 tons of steel, which takes 8 months to complete. Photo confession: shutterstock

In the career of Thomas Edison, more than a thousand invention patents, including voices, electric lights and microphones. Figure: Popperfoto / getty images

Incandescent lamp

Edison’s vocal machine was pioneered, but at first it was just regarded as a novelty. He turned to another invention that changed the world: incandescent lamps.

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

Electric bulb has come out as early as the early 19th century, but because of the filament (part of the light), they are very fragile and their life span is short. Carbon arc lights are an early electric light that relies on the steam generated by the battery heating carbon rod to glow. But they must light up with their hands, and the bulbs are constantly flashing, and theirsing sounds are easy to burn. Other electric lights are too expensive and unreasonable to be widely used.

In contrast, Edison’s incandescent lamps invented are cheap, practical, and long -lived. In 1879, after years of tireless improvement in the concept of incandescent lamps, he showed the world a light bulb that could continue to light up for 14.5 hours to break the record.

“My lights are finally perfect,” that year, Edison boasted to a reporter from the New York Times. After hearing this kind of light bulb, he fought to Monro Parker; on December 31, 1879, hundreds of people watched a public display in a laboratory decorating the lamp.

“(Scientists and) Non -scientists agree that Edison has created the future of the future,” “New York Herald reported.

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

And a black man Lewis Latimo further improved on the basis of Edison, making the bulb filament more durable and improving production efficiency. At the same time, Edison founded an electric power company to develop the invention that made the lights more easily accepted.

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

Lewis Latimo was one of the earliest African -American inventors. In the development of many modern inventions including light bulbs, he played a key role. Latmer wraps the carbon lamp in Edison Bullet in the hard cardboard to make it more durable. Figure: Science History Images / Alamy

In 1912, during the consultant of engineer Edward Hammer, Lewis Latimo drawn a sketch. Latimo worked with celebrities from that era, including Edison, Alexander Graham Bell and Heilm Maxim. Figure: SCHOMBURG Center for Research in Black Culture

Expand “Battle of Electricity”

All inventions made Edison’s reputation worldwide, which caused vicious competition in electrical power. Edison’s system depends on DC electricity, and it can only transport electricity to a large number of people with densely populated buildings. However, Edison’s competitors (including Serbian American inventor Nicholas Tesla and entrepreneur George Westinhaus) use AC electricity, it is cheaper, and can be transported to the distance to the distance. customer of.

With the popularization of AC systems, Edison used the media to wage war on Westinhus and Tesla, blame the deadlines related to electricity, and participated in an advertising activity that showed the fatal of AC power. With Edison’s public experiments that kill animals to kill animals, competition has entered the heat. The most horrible thing is that in order to ensure his technology, Edison, who was desperate, secretly funded the development and production of the first electric chair to ensure that it was operated with AC power.

Although Edison’s anti -AC electricity movement brought impact on people, he eventually lost in the battle of electricity, because the price of the price, coupled with his influence of his power company declined.

Edison’s old age life

A tragedy occurred in 1884, and Mary may die of morphine. Two years later, 39 -year -old Edison married Mina Miller, 20. When they passed the winter in Melzburg, Florida, they met Edison’s later scientific partners: Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor Corporation.

During World War I, Ford and Edison were worried about the United States’ dependence on British rubber, and rubber was crucial to this war. The Edison couple established a research company and laboratory with Henry Felstong, who started a rubber tire, to investigate the potential resources of rubber in the United States. Although Edison believes that golden rod grass may be a substitute, but this project has not found a reliable source of rubber in the United States.

Edison is still undergoing innovation and experiments, and it seems that he is endless. From the film (in 1893, he opened the world’s first production studio) to the doll to speak, it can be described as well -known. He claimed that he only slept for four hours a night and did not believe in the exercise. It was said that he had lived only with milk and cigars for many years. In the end, in 1931, Einstein died at the age of 84 at the age of 84.

Edison’s incandescent lamps and the contribution of Latimo allowed people all over the world to afford lighting equipment, such as this shoemaker workshop in India. Photography: Amy Tonsing, Nat Geo Image Collection

The legacy of Thomas Edison

Einstein is known as “becoming a Wizard of Monro Pak”, and today we can still feel his influence in many fields. From film to fluorescent perspective, to batteries, there seems to be no technical innovation corner he has not been in contact; in his life, he has 1093 patents named after his name in the United States.

爱迪生发明的是灯泡?还是白炽灯?

Some people criticize Einstein’s drafts on innovation. But Edison’s unremitting efforts to the invention are willing to try everything and win the honor of the greatest wise man in American history.

“Each incandescent lamp is his souvenir,” the New York Times wrote after Edison’s death, “Each power station is his monument. As long as there is a voice machine or a radio, as long as there are movies, whether it is the silent film or sound Movie, Edison is immortal. “

(Translator: Sky4)