People are in space: manned spacestick under the perspective of space station engineer

In the evolution, the universe creates a species that can partly understand it: humans.

From the beginning of chaos to the era of aerospace, as the only known intelligent life, people use various tools to understand the world to transform the world, and realize the continuation of species and the evolution of civilization.

However, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence technology today, why should we send people to heaven? How do people and machine work in space mission? As a space activity involved, how does the manned space inject and sublimate the value of “people”?

The manned space is a complex project composed of multiple systems, and it is also a systematic engineering constructed by people, machines and space environments. In addition to reflecting the national will, inspiring the national spirit, promoting scientific and technological progress, and continuing future civilization, this article talks about the role of people in space from the perspective of space station engineers, and the system design of manned aerospace to meet the needs of people in space needs Essence

The preciousness of people is difficult to replace; people -oriented, aerospace starts at the original intention.

First part

Inspealless people: the extraterrestrial mission of smart species

“Fake public horses, non -profit feet, and thousands of miles; fake boats, non -water, and none of the rivers.” As early as 2,000 years ago, our ancestors summarized the tools such as horses, boat boats and other tools. Extension of human abilities.

Since the Industrial Revolution, the tools that humans can use have been further developed into automated equipment, robots, artificial intelligence, etc. (this article is summarized in a broad word). The application of machines does not replace manpower, but has given birth to more positions in many fields in many fields in many fields of professional division of labor, industrial chain, and third -party services.

Standing at the beginning of the space age, Aerospace pioneer von Blaun believes that a main task of the people in the space station is to replace the camera film. Today, no matter the land observation of the earth, no film, but people not only have no unemployment in space, but have more, more complicated and more meaningful jobs. Engineers and other positions.

Can machines replace people? This fresh and ancient topic has actually answered the answer. For hundreds of years, from the earth to the sky, technology has continued to improve, but the work that people can do surpassed the machine capabilities of the same time, or have higher demand on the basis of the machine ability of the times. Or replacing some human labor while making hands and brains to do more “advanced” things. “Advanced” is relative to the times, and the ability to surpass the machine with a unique manner has nothing to do with the times, so manned spaceflight will always start with “people” as the starting point.

In the 1984 Aerospace STS 41-D mission, the astronaut Michael L. Coats took out the film from the stuck IMAX camera. (Source: space.com/nasa)

1. People are very different at the scene

Space remote operation is a basic way for humans to carry out aerospace activities, but the participation of people at the scene can obtain more efficient and direct operating results and more comprehensive and rich results. These typical work sites include scientific research and technical experiments, operating operations of space stations, space stations and other assembly and construction of rail facilities. Their common feature is that people with professional knowledge and skills can make comprehensive judgments based on the diverse information of the scene, make targeted decisions in real time, and implement physical operations.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

(1) Scientific research and technical test

This type of work is exploring, and iterates according to the process of “attempt-evaluation-correction-re-attempt”. People can get comprehensive test information at the scene at the scene, make judgments to the current state and form a work plan for the next step, adjust and determine the test status and parameters. Compared with the ground expert team on the ground, it can only rely on limited remote testing data to carry out work. Carplane expert astronauts can use rich state information to make comprehensive judgments and efficient decisions at the scene.

On -site experts can also directly replace test samples, adjust the test parts or test facilities. These operations must be “visible and touching” to perform -at least, based on the current technical capabilities, the ground personnel want to achieve the same effect through remote control, the restraint and difficulty are much greater.

In the space station, the configuration of high -performance computers and the development of technologies such as rail 3D printing, in -situ material processing will further strengthen the ability of on -site personnel to intervene in the test. Relying on the Heaven and Earth Links, the manned space activity can form a working model that combines loading experts in the rail test and ground professional center technology guarantee to give full play to the director of the heavens and the earth.

On November 21, 2021, the video screenshot of China Manned Aerospace Website, the Shenzhou Thirteen Multipiple Group conducted a scientific (trial) inspection in rail science. (Shi Xinhua)

(2) The operation of the space station

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

The space station is a large comprehensive machine, electricity, and heat comprehensive facilities. It contains a large number of mechanisms and mechanical and electrical products. The direct operation of people is not only efficient, but also easy to determine the operation results. For example, for the switch or motion status of products such as valves, action mechanisms and other products, the ground is usually based on “whether to issue/off instructions” or a certain part of the institution “whether to trigger the pressure point switch” as the basis; The motion component of the device “whether the physical action is in place” is often difficult to judge directly, and human operation can directly determine the operation results from real -time operation from the handle position, valve angle, and mechanism position.

The greater advantage of people at the scene is the ability to deal with quickly. Once the “move is not in place”, it can quickly determine whether it is a problem of actual physical action failure or other links such as sensors or information transmission, and deal with it as soon as possible. The physical movements of institutional products are most suitable for “seeing”, which is also the reason why unmanned spacecraft are more and more configured with cameras, allowing ground personnel to directly judge the state of the sun wings from the image and the robotic arm movement.

(3) The assembly and construction of the space station and other rail facilities

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

We often compare the construction of the space station to build blocks and build a house in space. It is essentially the process of increasing, splicing or adjustment of infrastructure. It involves a large number of complex and delicate mechanical and electrical operations involving the inside and outside of the cabin. It is most suitable for people to show their hands on the scene.

The two major actions of the International Space Station last year are typical of these operations. First, the American cabin section was installed, connected, and expanded through multiple groups of spacemen to install, connecting, and expanding, and completed the installation and upgrading of the two new solar battery arrays. The second is that Russian astronauts operate cables, network cables and installed off -cabins through the outlets and cabins, so that the newly launched “Nauka” multi -function compartment has truly become an integral part of the international space station.

Since the launch of the first module in 1998, the assembly of the main structure truss of the International Space Station and the expansion of many cabins were completed by astronauts with the assistance of the robotic arm. As of April 28, 2022, the International Space Station has launched 250 spaceworthy outlets to assemble, maintain and upgrade the space station.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

On April 28, 2022, Russian astronauts implemented the 250th out of the International Space Station to help enable the new European robotic arm. (Source: NASA)

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

2. People are the backup or supplement of the machine

In the manned space activity, human control operations are often used as backup or supplementary methods for automatic operation. We can understand that human operation and automatic operation are two independent and different heterogeneous controllers. The cooperation between the two can greatly improve the system reliability.

The more typical independent backup design is the docking of the meeting. In most of the process of the meeting, the system needs to perform the measurement track and rail calculation, and people are not competent. At the end of the meeting, the active aircraft must control the level and posture of the position and posture, and the human visual and exercise ability can play a role in this critical period. At this stage, the automatic system uses radar or optical measurement equipment to perform position and speed measurement. The relative posture is determined with an optical sensitivity combination of three -dimensional targets. Observation or camera to observe the target image, rely on the person’s three -dimensional visual determination gesture, and judge the handle operation according to the sense of spatial movement and position to control the flight action of the spacecraft. Such a design can ensure that it is immediately controlled by people when the automatic system failure, ensuring safety and continuing tasks.

Human control as a supplementary design is common in robotic arm operations. In the process of external activities of the robotic arm auxiliary cabin, large -scale transfer is usually planned and executed by the computer for pathway, which can effectively avoid obstacles and optimize mechanism movement. When you need to be fine -tuned when you reach the operating point, on -site astronauts know their own needs better, and obtain more comprehensive three -dimensional space information by directly observing can obtain more comprehensive three -dimensional space information. Therefore, at this stage Adjustment of the position of the arm. In order to improve the efficiency, this command and execution are usually no longer in the synergy of heaven and earth, but the instrument and handle operation in the cabin will be operated by the cabin in accordance with the outside of the cabin. The on -site operation of the European Robotic Arm (EUROPEAN ROBOTIC ARM/ERA) is more “live”, which is equipped with an operating box for offices. By operating the handle and buttons on the operating box, astronauts can operate the robotic arm like excavators outside the cabin.

my country’s first hand -in -hand -control meeting is successful

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

3. Coping accidents is a unique advantage of human beings

The maintenance of the tracking facility for the operation of the astronauts is mainly the replacement or repair of hardware equipment, that is, those who cannot be implemented by “soft” methods such as data injection and software upgrades and are difficult to implement by the machine. During the 20 -year flight of the International Space Station, the astronaut has updated the mechanical pump group with a lifetime expiration, and the controlling torque gyroscope that has occurred has been replaced. Maintenance.

The work of astronauts to play a greater role is to deal with the design status and the need to judge on the spot according to the specific situation. Typical examples include 5 times of Hubble telescope at rail dimensions and maintenance upgrades, as well as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer/AMS) Thermal control system repair. In order to solve the problem of assembly errors of Hubble telescope lens, the astronauts installed the correction mirror tailored by Hubble; to free up the installation position within the limited volume, it has to be removed. count). In the second case, the project has developed more than 20 special tools. After the ground test, it will be operated by heaven, and the follow -up task scheme is formulated according to the actual operation of the space officer. Essence

Emergency rescue is the harsh failure of astronauts, and it is not uncommon in the history of global manned space. The leakage of the international space station sealing cabin, the astronaut through the barriers of the barrier door, covering the plastic film and other methods of the suspected leakage area; the fire broke out of the Heping number space station, the astronauts were extinguished the flames with the fire extinguisher, and then the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air components were restored and the air composition was restored and the air composition was restored. Repair some of the equipment; the out of control of the No. 7 Space Station of the League T-13 Astronauts is controlled after the control. It is the track maintenance and maintenance of the astronauts that the Heping No. space station with a design life for 5 years has continued to work for 15 years. After more than 20 years of operation, the international space station can still extend his life.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

The “random strain” on -site disposal and emergency rescue are “unexpected”. Once such abnormal situations occur, because the input data is too different from the training data, it is difficult for machines to respond optimal performance. And people rely on their own knowledge, experience and logic to make judgments, often to intelligently solve problems and resolve crises.

In February 1997, American Astronauts went out to repair the Hubble Telescope (source: NASA/ESA) in the space aircraft STS-82 mission (picture source: NASA/ESA)

4. Researchers themselves are also an important task of aerospace

People are the main body of manned space and one of the research objects. From the day of Shenzhou 5 to the 6 -month residence to the space station mission, the continuous flight time of Chinese astronauts on the orbit is getting longer and longer; research on the space environment is the basis for ensuring the health and safety of the current flight task, but also the future. It is also the future. Prelude to manned the moon and interstellar sailing.

By comparing the physiological and psychological indicators of compatriots in space and earth for one year, respectively, the scientific team of NASA revealed the impact of space flight on human chromosome telomers, cognitive capabilities, gene expression and other aspects of space flight. Essence my country also conducted in -depth research on the mechanism of aerospace medical problems in combination with the past manned flight mission, and developed efficient comprehensive intervention protection measures. Together with the research and application of space medical experiments and space science, together, and aerospace technology tests, they constitute the three major application areas of China Space Station.

Shenzhou 12th astronaut Nie Haisheng test cardiopulmonary function in the orbit (source: CCTV)

Although major progress has been made in brain science research, our understanding of the human brain working mechanism is still very limited. Complex information processing capabilities and comprehensive judgment capabilities are simply like a special gift from the world to human species.

Make the machine’s execution of large calculations and relatively certain logic and relatively certain work, which makes people participate in a high -level, creative, or even unpredictable activity, which not only becomes the consensus of technology and production on the planet, but also the development of manned aerospace in various countries in the world. From nearby to deep space system design.

Next part

Oneless system: the best platform for people in space

Since the role of people in space is irreplaceable, the fundamental responsibility of manned aerospace is to build a platform for people to work in space. Although this platform is most directly reflected in the manned passenger, its dimension actually far exceeds the aerospace itself. It is through the optimization combination of people with the elements of the project due to the optimization of the design and the technical solution, so that the entire system can reach the “person” as a “person”. The best state of service.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

As an aerospace engineer, we need to ensure the safety of people through the design of the spacecraft and its operating system. On the basic living environment, the establishment of people can be in a comfortable living conditions, and finally we can design and build efficient workplace and guarantee conditions. Essence All this is not only a response to the demand for manned aerospace mission, but also reflects the post -development advantage of the Chinese space station.

1. Safe first system design

The security of the guarantor in space is the first priority of manned aerospace. As a multi -system, multi -professional participation system engineering, manned spaceflight has designed multiple security measures in the configuration and operation of the entire large system around the requirements of guarantor’s safety.

(1) The security logic of the multi -cabin space station

One of the major advantages of the multi -cabin space station is that each cabin segment is relatively independent, can be distributed distributed to the security guarantee function, and can ensure the overall security through physical isolation when there is a local problem.

For example, in terms of function distribution of the international space station cabin, security -related functions are backup of redundancy. Despite the difficulty of technology and the inconsistent technical routes of the two countries, the Russian -American cabin section still guarantees each configuration of a regenerative life guarantee system.

China Space Station uses Tianhe Core Card as a platform control management center to control the entire station uniformly. Qi Tian’s experimental compartment backups key functions such as energy management, information system, control system, and manned environment, which can take over the entire station control when the core compartment failure. In response to major failures such as the core cabin fire and pressure loss, it also has a special set of complete regenerative life support systems and emergency supplies to prepare for the space failure for a long time waiting for the ground failure disposal and rescue. Mengtian experimental cabin has equipment -level backup with key functions to further improve system security. In response to the safety of the spacemen’s out -of -the -cabin activity, I asked the Tianhe Temple to configure the main air gate, and the core cabin node compartment was used as a backup air gate. If there is a problem with the main air gates during the outlet process, the astronauts can return to the cabin through the node compartment to ensure the safety and reliability of the outlet activities.

China Space Station is in the rail assembly process (picture source: China Manned Aerospace Engineering Office)

(2) Safe Ship and Ultimate Safety Plan

Once the astronauts encounter safety problems, the ultimate solution is to return to the ground. The ground environment avoids all unsafe factors, and the guarantee that people can obtain on the ground are almost infinitely infinitely infinitely large. This “safest” principle puts forward the request to allow astronauts to return to the ground at any time, which leads to the concept of “lifeshw ship” -not to evacuate immediately after sending the astronauts to the space station, but always stopped by stopping. On the station, it became a life -saving boat on the station.

How many people on the standing are the life -saving ability of how many people, which is consistent with the requirements of the ship configured with the lifeboat. In terms of task arrangements, there is also a series of specific requirements and measures to ensure:

——The situation of no life boats on the station, or the number of people on the standing boat is not allowed to be temporarily or long -term. For example, if you need to conduct a meeting test, or the spacecraft is temporarily separated and re -connected to replace the interface, no matter how many people are required for the operation, the corresponding group must enter the spacecraft to ensure that when the task is wrong, everyone will be everyone. All on the spacecraft can return to the ground safely.

——As the life ship cannot be completely power off during the stop period, but is in a dormant state. The equipment such as measurement and control is kept on duty, and the instructions can be received at any time to wake up the entire ship.

——The returning supplies must be reserved in the life ship, and regular power inspection is required. Astronauts must also regularly enter the spacecraft inspection to ensure that the spacecraft is in good condition and is available at any time.

——The accidental failure of the lifeboat, in the event of a failure that cannot be returned, should be replaced by the first and maximum capabilities.

On October 16, 2021, the Shenzhou 13 spacecraft successfully connected to the radial port of the heaven and core cabin. (Picture source: China Institute of Space Technology)

(3) Before heaven, it is called ground rescue ship

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

The spacecraft that replaces the fault -saving ship, that is, the ground rescue ship. The space station has long -term manned operation and requires the ground to have continuous rescue spacecraft in order to truly ensure the safety of the orbit staff at all times.

Starting from the task of Shenzhou 12, my country combined with continuous tasks to perform ground rescue duty in rolling. When Shenzhou 12th is ready to launch, Shenzhou 13 also launches the launch site and completed the test; after the launch of Shenzhou 12, Shenzhou 13 is standing as a rescue ship at the launch site. After receiving the rescue instruction Rescue; Before the formal task of Shenzhou 13, the launch site of Shenzhou 14 was launched and the test was completed … such a cycle, the ships rolled the rescue and normal flight tasks. The advantage of this task mode is that the waiting time for each spacecraft is not long and approximate, avoiding a series of problems caused by the dedicated rescue captain’s long -term storage.

On September 17, 2021, with the return of Shenzhou 12 to the earth, Shenzhou 13 changed from rescue spacecraft to formal task spacecraft. (Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Zhenhua)

(4) Rail design aim at safe return

The safest to return to the earth, so the track design of the space station must also return to the earth as soon as possible to create the best conditions.

——Addling the return track. The manned space stations of various countries are located at a height of 340-450km. This is the result of a balanced consideration of the factors of the attenuation of the atmosphere of the air layer on the cosmic radiation protection effect and rail attenuation factors. It also has the characteristics of 2-3 days of regression because of this height track. In other words, the ground areas (including returning and ground measurement stations in the return area and ground measurement and control stations) passed by the space station can develop a relatively fixed return flight program in 2-3 days. This is very beneficial to ensure returning safety, especially the emergency return of uncertain time.

——The design chooses to return to the fall area. When returning normally, the spacecraft should fall in areas with better conditions such as geography, climate, search and rescue. my country adopts a plan to return landing on land, which is more constrained than the design of the maritime spatter plan, because the landing area that meets the conditions of the landing field is limited and the geographical location is fixed. By landing area. If you pass it once a day, you can return to the scheduled landing area every day. In order to cope with the uncertainty of the ground meteorological conditions, it is necessary to consider setting up a sub -landing area where the main landing area is far away and the weather is different. When the space station runs stable and can provide sufficient safety and material guarantee, you can avoid the ground bad weather by waiting on the orbit to reduce the dependence on the sub -landing field. In other words, change space in time (waiting for the weather) (select another area to land).

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

—— Design Select Emergency Square. The setting of the emergency landing area is aimed at the failure of the spacecraft when there is no space station that fails to fly alone, and needs to land as soon as possible to ensure the safety of astronauts. The “as soon as possible” here means that the spacecraft must land safely before consumption of its own energy, oxygen and other resources. Considering the worst situation, the fault may occur at any time. The project must combine the tracking characteristics of the track. In the global scope, there are enough and suitable areas as an emergency landing area. In the area without falling outside the design.

Tiangong No. 1 Space Lab flight trajectory (picture source: Phillyvoice)

(5) Safety strategy of manned lunar exploration

The manned aerospace flight near the ground can return to the ground in about 45 hours under emergency situations; even if it must return to the main landing field, it does not exceed 1 day. Therefore, “returning to the ground” has become a countermeasure for many emergency mode in the near -ground flight. At that time, the Peaceless Fire accident described in the previous article was considered immediately abandoning the space station to return. Finally, the fire was controlled to return to 3 people first, and three people continued to repair at the station.

But the moon mission is different. Even if the moon takes off and the trail orbit changes, it takes more than 3 days to return to the orbit of the earth from the ring -lunar orbit. In terms of emergency, this time is too long. When the author communicates with Russia, the other party attaches great importance to the manned lunar detection of the moon to continue working, and it must change the emergency strategy of near -ground orbit to form a new emergency system.

In fact, the long -term lunar detection task schemes currently proposed by countries have designed lunar rail space stations. An important role of the Moon Rail Station is to become a temporary and safe shelter in the emergency situation of the moon personnel. Compared to the unknown environment and the cost of the promotionant required for the lunar surface, it can be built and run safer and reliable space stations on a stable moon orbit. From the perspective of security perspective, such a configuration solution is actually formed a security system of “cutting-edge exploration (moon activity) -The front base (Moon Rail Space Station) -gen rear (Earth)”.

2. The spacecraft is used as a place for space survival

Under the premise that security is guaranteed, the spacecraft must provide people with basic survival conditions.

(1) Atmospheric environment

During the rail flight, people are in the sealing cabin most of the time, which will consume oxygen, produce carbon dioxide and some harmful gases. At the same time, the equipment and test devices on the space station will also release a small amount of harmful gases. Therefore, the environment in the cabin needs to be dynamically controlled by atmospheric pressure and ingredients. From the Heping No. Space Station, the long -term flight space station has carried a regenerative life support system; China Space Station has also been equipped with electrolytic oxygen, regenerative carbon dioxide removal, trace harmful gas purification, condensed water treatment, and urine treatment to achieve high substances Human environment control of closed loop.

(2) Microbial control

Some people live in the environment of microorganisms. If it is not controlled, microorganisms will not only endanger human health, but also corrode equipment. Therefore, microbial prevention and control is an important issue involving the safety of living environment for long -term manned flight.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

The microbial control of the space station is also a systematic engineering. The selection of antibacterial and mold -proof materials, cleaning, inspection and environmental control during equipment production and cabin assembly testing. Until heaven, purification, water purification, and surface wiping after heaven. Essence

(3) Space environment protection

Cosmic rays are harmful to human health. Atmospheric layer protection, aircraft protection and flight time control are three ways for human protection. Based on the evaluation of the protection equivalent, the earth contributes the most. The earth atmosphere and magnetic field protection in the near-ground rail areas can reduce the radiation intensity of the Milky Way cosmic ray radiation by 70%-90%; The surroundings are effective protection methods; currently each flying task of aerospace officers in various countries usually does not exceed half a year, and it is also to control the total radiation dose.

In the following situations, the above three methods are satisfied at different times, which will bring the risk of spatial and environmental impact:

——Eling out of the cabin. The spacemen lost the protection of the aerospace metal shell during the outlet event, and the amount of radiation accumulated by the outlet time was calculated separately. In addition, when planning a normal outlet task, the spacemen usually avoid the Southern Atlantic abnormal area in the 6 to 8-hour flight outside the cabin-30-50%weaker than the surrounding magnetic field. It is depressed to 200km here, and it will be more radiated when it is passed through the 400km orbit space station.

——Stane inflatable cabin. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) of Bigelow Aerospace has been connected to test applications on the international space station, and the commercial space station of many other companies has also adopted a flexible cabin solution. The flexible cabin constructed by multi -layered new materials has greatly improved the performance of insulation, spatial fragmentation, structural strength, sealing, internal scraping and anti -spurs, but due to the low material density, the protection effect of spatial radiation protection effect It is far below metal. Therefore, BEAM is currently just a test cabin with a normal atmospheric environment, and personnel can enter but cannot stay for a long time. The track performance of the flexible inflatable cabin is still under evaluation.

——In deep space. The people’s deep space flying for several months or even years, away from the earth, and the current spacecraft technology level cannot ensure the safety of the carrier’s radiation, and the three protection methods are insufficient. There is also the same problem on long -term work without atmospheric environments such as the moon. Therefore, the radiation protection measures of deep space aircraft and the use of moon -faced resources to build protective fields are worthy of in -depth research.

Space Station Renewal System Architecture (Picture Source: Aerospace Medicine and Medical Engineering)

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

3. Space life can be better

After the survival problem is solved, the living conditions must be improved for astronauts in order to fly longer and work better. With the accumulation of experience in manned space practice and the advancement of technology, the living conditions of the space station have gradually developed from ensuring sufficient hardware conditions to taking into account both physical and mental health.

The Cupola on the International Space Station is an excellent design. It is a panoramic attic of 1.5 meters on the surface of the protruding section. It provides an observation point for flight engineers during the operation of robotic arm operations and visiting aircraft docking. The more meaningful role is to let the astronauts who live in a narrow and closed space for a long time come here Overlooking the earth and the starry sky, adjust the soothing emotions. The dome compartment should be the result of the dual effects of design concepts and technological progress. In the past, it was difficult to imagine who would develop a panoramic sunroof with a diameter of nearly 3 meters, weighing 1.8 tons, and no substantial engineering function.

Dome on the International Space Station (picture source: NASA)

In terms of living conditions, China Space Station introduces the concept of livable design to provide protection for astronauts to facilitate life and psychological and physiological health:

—— Life areas and work areas. The two areas are relatively independent, and they are specially designed for spatial size, lighting, color, logo, etc. The living area is equipped with bedrooms, kitchens and bathrooms, and fully considers convenience and privacy in layout and equipment configuration. As a design requirement, there are portholes in each bedroom, and there are corresponding noise indicators and control measures in the living area and working area.

—— Exercise facilities. The cabin is equipped with fixed exercise facilities such as treadmills and bicycles, and astronauts are also equipped with portable exercise equipment and impedance exercise devices such as tensilers. Scientific training helps astronauts to maintain physical fitness and physical functions, which is beneficial to completing the tracking task and returning to the ground.

——Smark home management and entertainment. Based on the wireless WIFI network, the project has designed work, life, and entertainment apps for astronauts to achieve smart home management and material management through smartphones and tablets control.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

——The Tiandi Network. Tiandi Network guarantees two -way audio and video. Astronauts can not only watch TV shows on the ground, but also use online telephones to talk to their family, teammates, doctors, and technical supporters. This is the real “the world is neighbors”.

Shenzhou 12th astronauts exercise in orbit (picture source: China Space Technology Research Institute)

4. Heaven is for work

God is to perform tasks. Under the premise of security and livability, manned spacecraft must design better workplace and convenient work methods for astronauts.

(1) Human -machine interface design

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

For the equipment and interaction interfaces operated and used by astronauts, industrial design is carried out simultaneously from the scheme stage. With the development of space stations, related products must also conduct system -to -level work efficiency verification and evaluation at all levels of stand -alone at all levels to ensure that the astronauts of the heaven can control, efficiently, and conveniently control.

(2) Maintenance design

If you want to be good, you must first benefit your instrument. Since maintenance and maintenance is an important part of the work of astronauts in the orbit, the space station must carry out a series of designs with the goal of meeting the needs of maintenance. Its main work includes:

——Adivation of maintenance requirements. Simply put, equipment that is relatively easy to be bad and short life, or important equipment that affects safety and tasks when it is broken, must ensure that they are repaired in design. The former such as a limited life battery and pump, the latter such as life protection equipment. Conversely, if the cost of non -maintenance or maintenance of certain devices is too large, it must be designed and manufactured to be reliable, such as pipeline systems and trunk cable networks. This is similar to the decoration house: the faucet and the bulb are replaceable, but the upper and lower water pipes and power supply lines buried in the wall are usually not repaired or easy to break.

——The device can be repaired. For a single device, the astronauts should be ensured that they can see and operate reliable in the case of a heavy environment or even the cabin. They can effectively test the maintenance effect. If necessary, you can design special tools. The maintenance of the equipment outside the cabin is more difficult. In order to allow the astronauts to carry out the corresponding operation under the conditions of the outside of the cabin, the operating handle, cable plugs, etc. are specially designed. When the equipment is installed and layout, the astronauts must consider that there is sufficient operating space and lighting conditions.

——An system support for maintenance. During orbit maintenance, the entire station is stopped at the ground. During maintenance, the faulty device must beolate and maintains the system operation during maintenance. Just as when the faucet is changed, the upstream water valve should be turned off. When changing the bulbs, the electric gate in this room should be opened, and other rooms can still use water and electricity normally. The design on the spacecraft includes: maintenance equipment can have an alternative equipment to continue to work, or it can be powered off for a short time without affecting the system operation; The device can maintain the system operation; the information system allows the device to not cause problems such as network protocol conflicts when resection and access.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

——The tool design. Astronaut’s handheld tools, robotic arms, and even robots are tools that need to be designed. From the 4 -time out -out mission that has been completed in China, you can see a typical off -cabin operation tool and its performance. The astronauts multiply the group to conduct efficient human -machine collaborations, control the robotic arm to complete the transfer of people and equipment; the overseas astronauts use complete functional tools to complete the maintenance or assembly task; The foot limits used to fix the body ensure that the astronauts can perform their hands and feet at the operating point.

China Space Station Robotic arm (picture source: China Space Technology Research Institute) in the ground test

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

(3) “Space Port” design

The entire space station is the workbench of the astronauts and the “good” tools. It can also become a space mother port to visit the spacecraft and provide service guarantee for it. For example, based on the innovative mode of the rail flight spacecraft in the rail service, the sky -to -space telescope can stop at the Tiangong Space Station for a short period of time to carry out promotional supplies and equipment maintenance and upgrade.

Compared with the huge cost of the United States to launch a spacecraft many times to repair the Hubble telescope, the co -rail flight service model is convenient and economical, which has greatly expanded the “one specialization” of manned spacecraft. This working mode also gives full play to the specialties of no one and someone’s aircraft, and avoiding the contradictions that may produce different working conditions. When the sky -to -see telescope is usually a unmanned satellite, without personnel interference, you can get high -precision, high stability, and stability control, which is very beneficial to astronomical observations. In part, astronauts can perform related operations.

(4) Tongtian and Earth Collaborative Guarantee

Astronauts are not fighting in the sky. The efficient world coordination is an important guarantee for giving full play to the length of heaven and earth.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

The return of Apollo 13 is a classic case: the spacecraft is close to the moon, the service cabin oxygen tank explodes, the ground control center decisively decides to cancel the moon landing task; the astronauts have implemented emergency power supply, air purifier transformation and air purifier reconstruction and the support of the ground engineer team. Return to braking and finally return to Earth. The BeAM inflatable compartment mentioned earlier provides contemporary world synergy example: Beam was suspended due to the friction between the soft fabric between the soft fabric of the inflatable cabin during the first launch. The NASA team of the NASA, and the Bigro development team of the NASA, the Flying Control Center, collaborated to complete the fault positioning and disposal. The ground engineers observed the changes in the state of the cabin all night. Combined with the astronauts on the spot, several parties would discuss the problem positioning and guide the operation of the astronauts in real time, forming a “astronaut operation -inflatable cabin change -heaven and earth collaborative observation and judgment -discussion form formed formation The big closed loop of the next operation opinion. For more than 7 hours of the second launch, the astronaut manually opened the air -charge valve of 25 times, successfully filled and began Beam.

The core cabin of the China Space Station has been flying on track for more than a year. Judging from the completed outlets and internal tasks, the rail operation mode under the guarantee of the large system of the world has taken shape. In the application of the construction, expansion, upgrading, and rail service in the future, the aerospace officers under the support of the ground professional team will be more powerful in track operation, and will fully play the role of people in space.

人在太空:空间站工程师视角下的载人航天

Shenzhou 13 Aerospace Mean Zhai Zhigang came out of the cabin of the Shenzhou 13 (Xinhua News Agency reporter Guo Zhongzheng), who was taken at the Beijing Aerospace Flight Control Center on November 7, 2021 (Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Guo Zhongzheng)

For thousands of years, technology has changed the main form of labor of human beings, and further highlights the intellectual advantage of man. The update of technology and the progress of people are moving forward in dynamic complement and adapting to each other. With their wisdom constantly creating more advanced technology, people must self -improve to adapt to the speed of technology iterative; technology extended people’s ability, expanded people’s living space, and provides better conditions for achieving people’s comprehensive development.

This is the meaning of man in space.

The Chinese Space Station era is open slowly. People have achieved space stations, and space stations will also achieve achievement and enhance people’s value and dignity; people are part of manned spaceflight, and they also form a larger system with manned spaceflight to jointly explore margins and question the world. (Finish)

Produced: Li Xiaoyun

Edit: Wang Xinrong

School pair: Cui Yi