Do horses mate with donkeys?

2007-02-23

The mule is a cross between a stallion and a female donkey and is infertile,

According to the relevant information on the website of the People’s Education Publishing House, mules have sexual ability and can have sexual intercourse. Early reports of mules giving birth to foals in foreign countries Cheng Guangren et al. As interspecific hybrids of mules (including mules born to stallions and female donkeys and mules born to male donkeys with mares), they are generally incapable of reproduction. However, in ancient and modern times, there is no shortage of female mules and female mules that can give birth to foals, and of course, you can occasionally see the backcrossing generation born by them, that is, B1. In ancient Chinese books, the offspring born of a stallion with a female mule are called horses, and the offspring born of a male donkey with a female mule are called ?. The typical example of domestic female mules giving birth to foals is the report of Zong Enze and others of the Lanzhou Animal Husbandry Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for many years of systematic research, a total of about 13 horses, which will not be detailed here, and the relevant case reports of foreign female mules giving birth to foals are introduced below for the reference of Chinese people. The earliest recorded foreign is a Russian husband. Case. Mishchenko’s 1888 translation of Herodot… all

However, in ancient and modern times, there is no shortage of female mules and female mules that can give birth to foals, and of course, you can occasionally see the backcrossing generation born by them, that is, B1. In ancient Chinese books, the offspring born of a stallion with a female mule are called horses, and the offspring born of a male donkey with a female mule are called ?. The typical example of domestic female mules giving birth to foals is the report of Zong Enze and others of the Lanzhou Animal Husbandry Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for many years of systematic research, a total of about 13 horses, which will not be detailed here, and the relevant case reports of foreign female mules giving birth to foals are introduced below for the reference of Chinese people.

The earliest recorded foreign is a Russian husband. Case. Mishchenko’s 1888 translation of Herodot’s book “Historical Stories in Nine Books”, when Babylon was besieged by the Persian Empire around 600 BC, in order to ensure the food supply of the war, there was a transport team of mules, and a female mule unexpectedly gave birth to a foal halfway through.

In 1992, the German “Annals of Animal Science and Technology” published H. Henseler writes in the relevant chapter that in 1759 there was a case in Ettingen in which a mule born to a mare gave birth to a mule, but this mule was very similar in appearance to a foal. It is also written that in 1762 there was a case in Valencia in which a female mule born to an Andalu mare gave birth to a total of 6 offspring (B1) in her lifetime, which did not differ in appearance from a foal.

The author also reported a case in Argill in 1873 in which a stallion was born with a female mule. Most notably, the author also reports an example of a female mule named “Moore” mated with an Arabian stallion at an experimental station in Tetripolitania to give birth to two foals that looked like foals, and later used a male donkey to mate with “Moore” and also gave birth to two foals.

However, the double foals born this time are typical mule foals from the appearance. In the German Yearbook of Animal Science and Technology in 1916, De Chambre (P. Dechambre has reported that 1 female mule born of the mating of a white Egyptian male and an Arab mare in Burun, France, has a total of 5 foals (B1), of which 3 foals are bred by Berber stallions (a local breed in North Africa) and two are born from Egyptian male donkeys.

The first three horses, known as “Kumir”, “Constantine” and “Genpupin”, are no different from horses in appearance and are all fertile. The last two are typical mules and infertile. Deschampbull also mentioned in the article that as far back as 1898, there were also cases of female mules giving birth to foals in India.

In 1928, in the Journal of Heredity, Gross (A. R。 Groth reported that there is a horse named “Auld.” Beck’s female mule was mated in 1923 by a passenger stallion to give birth to a male colt (B1), which resembled her father and did not differ in appearance from the horse.

It is worth noting that this male foal born of a mule had normal sexual function as an adult, and in 1926 it mated two mares, one of which became pregnant and gave birth to a foal that resembled the body shape of a mare (B2). Later, several mares were matched and a foal (B2) was born. Their offspring are reproductive.

The author writes again, still “Old. Bak “This female mule gave birth to offspring in 1919 by mating with a male donkey, but her appearance is typical of a mule and it is sterile. In 1924, she again mated with a male donkey, and although she was pregnant, she later miscarried. Warren (A.

Warren (1926) reported that in 1924 in South Africa, a female mule named “Firth” was mated by a stallion to give birth to a foal, the appearance of which was the same as that of a horse, and the foal was mated with a stallion in heat 7 years later and conceived and gave birth to a foal, and her appearance was no different from that of a horse. Anderson (W.

S。 Anderson reported in the Journal of Genetics in 1939 that a female mule mated with a Bellecheron stallion to give birth to a foal that had all the characteristics of her father, the Bellsheron stallion, without any of the characteristics of her maternal grandfather, the donkey. There are also quite a few foreign reports of mules giving birth to foals.

For example, Muller reported that in 1903 there was a case of mule giving birth to a foal in Estanz, Africa; Harveu once reported that in 1913 on the island of Cyprus a female mule mated with a male donkey and gave birth to a male foal, and then came into heat again to breed (still using a male donkey) and gave birth to another female foal; Montpair once reported that in 1923 in Morocco there was a foal born of a female nut from the mating of a passenger Berber stallion, which looked similar in appearance to her father, the Berber horse; Laurence once reported that in 1927 a female mule was mated by a male donkey in Nebraska to give birth to a foal; Smith (H.

Smith has reported that in 1939 a female mule in Arizona was mated by a male donkey to give birth to a foal, exactly like her mother, a mule. From the above example of mules giving birth to foals, it seems that the following impressions can be given: (1) A small number of individuals of mules (including mules) that are interspecific hybrids are fertile; (2) a very small number of fertile adult mules can produce offspring if they mate with stallions or donkeys (B1); (3) When the male donkey is used to backtrade, the B1 born not only still has the typical appearance characteristics of mules, but also is sterile; (4) B1 born when the female mule uses a stallion to return to the horse is not only identical to the horse in physical shape and appearance, but also fertile for both males and females, and can give birth to B2, and B2 is completely the appearance and physical characteristics of the horse; Based on the above points, it seems to prove Anderson’s regression theory.

However, to confirm the regression theory, karyotype analysis has yet to be performed. Since Bulletin of Biology, No. 9, 1996. Collapse