New book first: “Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution” | 15 good books on the French Revolution

French Revolution History series finale

During the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution in 1989, Francois Furley was titled by the French media with the title of “the King of the 200th Anniversary”. The French Revolution Criticism Dictionary is the most component masterpiece of the French Revolution History Amendment, represented by Fu Lei. The importance of translations is self -evident.

–Editor’s Choice

“French Revolution Critical Dictionary 2: Character Roll”

[French] Portal Swarva Foreng Ozov editor

Translated by Shen Huaming; Liu Beicheng School

Table of contents

Babeuf (Babeuf)

Barnave (Barnave)


Brissot (Brissot)

Carnot (Carnot)


Danton (Danton)

La Fayette

Louis Sixteen (Louis ⅹⅵ)

Marat (Mara)



Nex (Necker)




Exiles (Emigrés)



Girlondins (GIRONDINS)

Eberpier (or Katti)




Thermidoriens (Thermidoriens)

“French Revolution Critical Dictionary 3: Institutional Volume”

Translated by Zhang Zhi; Liu Beicheng School

Armée (Armée)

Revolutionary Council (Assemblées Révolutionnaires)


State -owned property (BIENS National)


Clubs et Sociétés Populaires

Code Civil

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The Comité de SALUT PUBLIC

Commune de Paris

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Conentition Civile Du Clergé

Province (département)

Gouvernement Révolutionnaire

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Tax (IMP iT)

Public education (Instrument Public)


Religion Révolutionnaire

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Election system (Suffrage)

“French Revolution Critical Dictionary 4: Concept Volume”

Translated by Huang Yanhong; Liu Beicheng School

Old system (Ancien Régime)



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Democracy (Démocratie)

Droits de l’ Homme

Equality (égalité)

Public Public Public (ESPRIT Public)

Feudal system (Féodalité)

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Frontières NatureLles



Enlightenment (lumières)

Monarchie Absolue


National (National)

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Physiocrates (Physiocrates)

Regeneration (Régénération)

Republic (République)

Revolution (Révolut)

Révolution américaine





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Why is the Great Revolution important?

A “History of Revolutionary Politics”

The French Revolution has been calculated for more than 230 years since 1789, but its impact is still immortal.

Israeli historian Alon Confino explained this.

He calls the French Revolution a “foundational past”: “The foundation of the foundation refers to an event representing an era, because it reflects a historical innovation, becomes moral and historical, and becomes a measuring all human things. scale

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

Essence Roots are not an inherent quality of the incident, but a historical construction that exists in people’s subjectivity. “In his opinion, the French Revolution was the historical innovation incident in the above sense.

Specifically, “the Declaration of Human Rights” and terror redefine politics and morality

Essence The Great Revolution gave birth to the thoughts and practice of determining modern Europe and world history since 1789:

Liberalism, socialism, feminism, human rights, chief mobilization, and revolutionary concept itself

Essence The Great Revolution is the first modern experience in democracy and national horror, so it is regarded as a new standard for measuring modern history. For British commentator Edmond Berke, it is a model that must be avoided at any cost, but for Lenin, it is a model worth copying. “

Confino’s assertion was brilliant, and it was quite insightful.

As the threshold for modern Yaus, the Great Revolution shows people with the two faces of “Manifesto of Human Rights” and horror.

It not only cut off the past and modern times, but also heralded the tension and conflict of “modern” or “modernization”, and opened the route competition in the modern world.

In the western and even more vast world, since the war of Berke Panne, the debate about the Great Revolution has never stopped

Essence Researchers and participants of the first generation consciously consciously consciously substitute the party of 1989 or 93 years, and even the empire. There are not only differences in context and intergeneration, but also the relationship between material and mental interests. Just as French historian Francois Valle has concluded: “No other historical debate is as fierce and sharp as every generation of debate about the French Revolution.”

In fact, the Great Revolution is not only a historical event, but also has always participated in real life in the form of historical discourse

Essence Reality forms a relationship with the Great Revolution. Each generation needs to use the Great Revolution narrative and interpretation to provide the basis for practical and ideological. The historical discourse of the Great Revolution has become a realistic constructive factor. And the Dajie discourse of each generation was also a real image at that time.

Each generation of people restructuring the Great Revolution based on the historical discourse of contemporary memory and imagination

Essence Of course, the historical discourse of the Great Revolution has accumulated rich and thick ideological heritage.


“Voltaire’s fault, Rousseau’s fault.” With the words of Gavroche, the entire 19th century believed that the concepts of these two philosophers have led to the Great Revolution. Regardless of whether these ideas are cursed or praised Essence Mishley wrote: “When these two people go, the Great Revolution has been completed in the highlands of people’s minds.” In addition, Voltaire had originally believed that the concept of the world’s rule of the world came from him. However, we should not stay in this explanation of this kind of wise theory for revolution for a long time. We just need to note that the two mentor -level figures, the two mentor -level figures standing on the threshold of the Great Revolution. For those who still remember the war between the two philosophers, this combination of parallelism is a major event in itself. In the case of Hugo, if you want to achieve reconciliation after the death, the difficulty is no less difficult than the appearance of the fantasy scene such as moving them out of the ancestor of the sages: “Two skull collide with each other, and the martial arts martial arts can make the creation. The brain of “Philosophy Dictionary” and the creation of “Social Contract theory” to communicate with each other and achieve reconciliation. “


– “French Revolution Critical Dictionary”

According to Mona Ozov, France experienced the “Centennial War of the Old System and the Great Revolution”, and the general dust settled at the end of the 19th century

Essence The third Republic, who was born, finally paid tribute to the First Republic. Later, the Republican politician George Klengleng Pulk, known as the “Prime Minister of the Tiger”, announced:

The Great Revolution is a whole (BLOC), which must be fully accepted everything in the Great Revolution, including horror.

Of course, this tone cannot end the debate. As a professional discipline, the Great Revolutionary History was born in the atmosphere of empiricalism and republicanism in the Third Republic. In the early 20th century and the middle, to

Professional research at the Institute of French Revolutionary History of Paris (Sorbon) University (Sorbon) was deeply influenced by Marxism. From Madiel and Lefifer to Sobul to form orthodox colleges.

The college sent his eyes down to dig down the social and economic analysis, and expanded his horizons to rural, no jeans, and the people’s mentality, but they had obvious preference for the Jacobin. The 5th volume of this book has a detailed comment on the college faction. Although it is through the criticism of Frey, it can still be seen.

In 1989, the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. Earlier, Suber’s heirs Michel Vivil was commissioned by the French government to coordinate related academic activities from France and internationally.

The French Revolution Criticism Dictionary published in 1988 is the collective work of the revision.

The editor -in -chief and main contributors of “Critical Dictionary” are Francois Valley and Mona Ozov.

Fransois Furet (1927-1997) belongs to the third generation of the yearbook school. The first generation of the year’s school school (Lucian Fields and Mark Bloch) and the second generation (Bro Eardor) and the third generation most historians (such as Jacques Logov) are concerned about cross -disciplinary research, preferred preferences The overall history, social history, and mentality history are unwilling to touch the “event history” and political history issues such as the Great Revolution. Fu Lei is an exception. He has joined the French Communist Party, and Hungarian incident retired. From entering the academic community, he has been enthusiastic about studying the Great Revolution, and has published the “History of the French Revolution” (two volumes, consistent with Lixiu, 1965), “Thinking of the French Revolution” (1978) and “Marx and the French Revolution” 1988). He started from Marxist social history research, but instead opposed the college’s “Jacobin History” and Marxist social history research orientation.

It advocates the return of the 19th century Tocoke and the foundation, and emphasizes the complexity and accidental nature of the Great Revolution and the entire process.

Essence He successively presided over the French Institute of Social Sciences and the Raymond Alon Institute to establish the Taoist Tongjian. Mona Ozouf (1931-) is a close friend in the small circle of Fu Lei.

With the “Revolutionary Festival” (1976), this innovative work opened a political and cultural research on the Great Revolution.

It has also been recognized by some scholars of the year school school.

The two of them represented the tendency of the return of political history in the third generation of the year’s school and the tendency of political and cultural analysis.

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

The French Revolution Critical Dictionary is not a common dictionary for people.

We can compare the “Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution” published in 1989. Both are large -scale collective works. The “Historical Dictionary” was launched by the college’s late head of Sorbul and the host of Vivil. 64 writers were all French revolutionary history professional scholars in the university and its affiliated research institutes. The entire book is 1132, arranged in the order of French alphabets, includes more than 1,000 entries, and attached a big year of events. It can be described as a full book about the French Revolution. compare to

The volume of “Critical Dictionary” is generally similar. The book is 1122 pages, but there are only 99 entries. Each entry is a long article. There are only 24 writers. Frey, Ozov and Ricker wrote 53 of them.

(6 additional supplements in the second edition, totaling 105. The new entry is the 18th of the fog, the revolutionary of San Doming, the British, San Ruster, the public education and the absolute monarchy. Among them The revolution is written by the newly -invited Italian scholars.) All authors work in institutions outside the French university system: the French Institute of Social Sciences Higher Research, the French National Scientific Research Center or foreign university. (It should be explained here that the French Social Science High Research Institute is a research institution formed by Brlo Eya outside the university.) Some of them are not researchers in the history of the history of France, but are political or political philosophers or social scholars.

The book is divided into 5 volumes according to the topic, not according to the concept of social theory (such as politics, economy, religion, etc.), but to classify general historical phenomena (events, characters, systems, concepts, and interpreters)

Essence Some commentators believe that these two dictionaries are two historical writing systems. The former provides historical facts on the basis of empirical, while the latter focuses on interpretation, comparison and discourse analysis. Many entries in the latter clearly use the research results of the college. Of course, Ozov and others also showed solid archives research skills.

In Fu Lei’s view, regardless of the curse or praise of the Great Revolution, it belongs to “commemorative history”.

Essence However, the times have changed. From the Third Republic to the Fifth Republic, the basic principles of the Great Revolution have been fully implemented. We can say goodbye to the revolution, that is, we will no longer be substituted into the role of the Great Revolution, and we can reflect on the French Revolution with a critical attitude. With the help of the 19th -century ideological resources obscured by the academic hegemony, we can re -get the courage and ability to judge the Great Revolution. (See Fu Le (ie Fu Lei) “Thinking of the French Revolution”, Sanlian Bookstore, 2005.) The “critical” theme of the dictionary is also here.

[French] Portal Swarva Foreng Ozov editor

[French] Portal Swarva Foreng Ozov editor

Table of contents

Table of contents

Why is the Great Revolution important?

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

In terms of methodology,

The authors of the dictionary go to the sword and reject the socio -economic interpretation of the college

It is believed that the concept (such as the feudal system) needs to be restored to the historical context.

“Critical Dictionary” is completely limited to political history, but it also opens a new way for political and cultural research

Essence Some commentators pointed out: “The main methodological standards of the dictionary author are the research on the” revolutionaries ‘expression of their actions’ … … Not only was the French Revolution under the instructions of the 19th century historian, but the critical history is still in Based on the “French Revolution’s Words ‘on its own”, special attention has been paid to the “role of the concept in the French Revolution'” (the words of Ozov). The recovery of integration explains these functions. What you see here is not a nihilistic ideological story. Therefore, the most original contribution of “Critical Dictionary” is a “history of revolutionary politics’. This is a part of the already part of The history that is completed but still needs to be completed, which may explain the entry selection of incomplete systems on the surface, but we can already particularly appreciate the wonderful series of revolutionary concepts, either highly symbolic (such as Ozov’s freedom about freedom , Equality, Bo Ai, Regeneration, Revolution), either an important book about the new political art (such as Baker’s entry on sovereignty) (such as the book review of the historian Jacher of the French political concept history).

The commemorative activity of the 200th anniversary of the Great Revolution does show a commemorative atmosphere, but whether it is in France or abroad, the focus is in the “Manifesto Declaration”

Essence The French government added three people to the Ancestral Temple, including the Apocalypse of the Apocalypse, the Glen -faction member Kong Duoye, the constitutional bishop, the Priest Gragwa and mathematicians who advocated slaveism.

The amendment to the history has also won the media. “I won”, and Fu Lei’s joke was not exaggerated.

When Fvilvir attended the commemorative activities of the historian community in China, he even heard the incredible expression of “we are all hot -moon party”. Looking at the “landslide and cracking” (the metaphor of Hobbes Bum) at that time, the victory of the amendment faction was actually just a representation of the trend of the times and international academic progress.

Old system

The concept of “old system” is a combination of the French Revolution. It expresses the opposite of the Great Revolution, bad aspects and negative aspects: it is not only a thing that is preceded by the Great Revolution, but also for it that the Great Revolution defines itself as abandonment, break and a new beginning. Therefore, the old system and the French revolutionary concepts together created a pair of inseparable combination concepts, and the meaning of the word revolution was distinguished from the understanding of the Anglo-Saxon context. In the middle of the 17th century, the British Revolution only overturned the monarchy system in the name of traditional constitution; the most vivid revolutionary and the most equal -ist colors did not establish a new social ambition on the basis of human regeneration; on the contrary, they insisted on insisting on Such a belief: “restore” the abandoned social order and forgotten commitment. Later, before the French Revolution broke out, the U.S. uprising rebelled against the British’s tyranny in the name of the British Constitution. A century ago, these people fled to Europe in order to get rid of the monarchy, aristocratic system, and system church. How could they have the “old system? Tocowell had compared the US democracy and French revolutionary democracy. The former came from Europeans. By this continent, it has been established, but the latter needs to overthrow the previous noble system. From the nature and principles of both parties, the difference between these two experiences is whether there is an old system. From the point of view The fundamental and decisive conditions of the Revolution.


– “French Revolution Critical Dictionary”

In recent years, both the amendments and the college factions have returned to peaceful academic research. The debate about the Great Revolution seems to be at the end of Qing Ping and no longer set off a stormy wave.

Is the Great Revolution really the past?

Recently, some news said that French President Macron quietly changed the blue on the three -color national flag back to the navy blue symbolizing the French Revolution.

Is this a sign of the country of Charlie Weekly and publishing the “21st Century Capital Theory”?

The French Revolution occupies an important position in the historical discourse of modern China.

Representative scholars in each era and schools

“History of the French Revolution”

Most of the classic history of the name is Chinese. Fu Lei also wrote the “History of the French Revolution” and put forward the famous side skating theory, but soon gave up. Therefore, the French Revolution Critical Dictionary can be used as a masterpiece of the amendment to enter the genealogy of the French Revolution History.

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Perhaps it is a finale of the history of the Great Revolution, at least at present. This academic value judgment is an academic motivation for us to choose to translate.

Liu Beicheng

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

November 21, 2021

(The above text is taken from the “French Revolution Critical Dictionary” translation preface and text, and the paragraphs are adjusted)

“French Revolution Critical Dictionary”

The French Revolution Criticism Dictionary is a masterpiece of the history of the French Revolution Amendment. It can also be described as the finale of the revolutionary history series so far. The expert team led by Franvisov Fry and Mona Ozov, a well -known historian, amended historian, amended historian representatives, and a comprehensive review and re -evaluation of the French Revolution.

The form of this book belongs to the first, named a dictionary, and the entry is the purpose, but it is not a brief explanation. The book is selected as 105 keywords as entries, and each entry is presented as a long article, which is very readable. There are five volumes of the dictionary, which are divided into events, characters, systems, concepts, and interpretations. Each entry is attached to the entry of ginseng, with indexes at the end of the book to facilitate readers to check.

The book has a profound integration: “critical” the main purpose runs through the book, breaks the arbitrary theory and deterministic interpretation, restores historical discourse to the scene, and open up a new path of political and cultural research.

Further reading |

15 good books on the French Revolution

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

1. “Old System and the Great Revolution”

“Old System and the Great Revolution” proposed the deepest analysis of the cause of the revolution.

The book I published now is by no means a history of the French Revolution; there have been people who have written such historical history and wrote it. I don’t want to write anymore. This book is a study of this Revolution.

They unknowingly inherited most of their feelings, habits, and thoughts from the old system, they even rely on all these all the great revolution that destroyed the old system; they used the rubble of the old system to build a building in a new society. They are reluctant to do this; therefore, if they want to fully understand the Great Revolution and their merits, they must temporarily forget the France we see today, and to examine the dead, France in the grave.

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2. “History of the French Revolution” (Miner)

Those who really launch war are not people who declare war, but those who force people to fight against fighting … The enthusiasm can eventually lead to victory, but cannot be replaced by the beginning of the end.

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Mine (1796-1884) was one of the historians who examined history from the perspective of class struggle. He described the evolution of French history from the perspective of class struggle in this book.

3. “History of the French Revolution” (George Lefifel)

Starting from the European situation before the revolution, to Napoleon Polipa’s launch of the fog moon coup, it described the history of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1799. The author deeply excavates the social history and economic history of this revolution in terms of social, economic, law, religion, taxation, land, and international relations.

4. “History of the French Revolution” (Madil)

Madiel is a well -known French historian and has been engaged in the history of the history of the French revolution. He strictly follows the “criticism of scientific methods” and is engaged in research, diligent in collecting historical materials, and good at expressing.

“History of the French Revolution” is a comprehensive work written for general readers, and it is “a picture of the French Revolution in all aspects.”

5. “French Revolution Lecture”

During the 1895-1899 period, Sir Akton, a lecture professor of modern history of Cambridge.

The discussion of the Great Revolution literature in the lecture is usually said in the conversation class, or lectures alone. The book has a typical style of Akton’s works: it is profound but not stagnant, witty but not showing off. The narrative is smooth and logical. It has a strong ideological penetrating power. Readers will get a lot of inspiration from it.

6. “French Revolution Theory”

In the second year of the French Revolution, Britain’s most famous political theorist Berk’s best -known book.

The French Revolution impacts and shakes the foundation of social order and freedom, as well as all good things and treasures of human civilization in the long historical process. Berk predicts that this devastating destruction will eventually lead to the emergence of a new autocraticist power. Only it can maintain society from comprehensive chaos and collapse.

7. “Correction of the public’s comment on the French Revolution”

Fergit followed the “freedom of thought that they suppressed them so far from the monarchs of Europe”, and published another political work published anonymous. This work is not only huge, but also contains his formation of historical philosophical thoughts, legal philosophy and religious philosophy, and is an important work in his youth.

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

8. “What is the third level of special rights? “

“Break” (privilege level) and “Li” (third level). During the French Revolution, the masterpiece of the famous jurist and political thinker Sieus.

“On Special Rights” concentrates the monopoly and parasiticity of the privilege class, as well as the harm of the disadvantages of privileges to the national society. This book has greatly promoted and encouraged the French Revolution.

9. “The French Revolution (1789-1799)”

Looking back on the journey of the Great Revolution for ten years, especially the turning point and important clues, re -analyzing and thinking about the experience and heritage of the Great Revolution. Lessons, we reviewed that era to understand the order and life today.

10. “Torture of the French Revolution”

“Sole’s torture, asking the direction.”

In this practical summary work, Jacques Sole shows everything you want to know about the French Revolution and provides all the problems you will ask.

The Great Revolution did not achieve the original goal. Solei understands this. He knew that one France had gone through the Great Revolution, and the other only survived from it.

11. “Rousseau and the Republic of Germany: Political Language in the French Revolution”

The virtues that France cannot bear

Rousseau’s thought has a huge impact on the French Revolution. As a believer in Rousseau, Robertspier attempts to form a virtue Republic in accordance with Rousseau’s virtue thinking, not only France, the entire world pays a heavy price for this reason.

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What is Rousseau’s virtue? Why did the leaders of the Great Revolution use his virtue of virtue as a blueprint so firmly? Does the Enlightenment Thinker take responsibility for this? Unavoidable issues.

12. “Robspier and the French Revolution”

How did a shy young lawyer become the embodiment of violence and horror?

The revolutionary leader who grew up from the elegant knowledge of youth to the bloody storm finally stepped onto the barrier at the age of 36 -Maximilian Robertspier’s life was exciting, fearful, and more intimate. He is the most firm believers in Rousseau, an idealist who is keen to transform human society. He designed an ideal kingdom of heaven in accordance with one principle. He was only outstanding, personally, and admired by all people; he was extremely nice and noble, and was a revolutionary who could not be bought; he was lofty and great, and he had difficulty in reaching. However, his hand was covered with blood. In addition to speaking incitement, the broken side was the most hand -to -handed tool. How did a shy young lawyer become the embodiment of violence and horror?

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Ideal, self -negative, blindness, and fanaticism will not achieve pure ideal country.

13. “Family Roman History of the French Revolution”

Based on the “family Roman History” refers to the collective and unconscious family order image, the image of this family order constitutes the tone of the political concept of the French Revolution. By discussing the relationship between family members, the author explains this political idea, and uses the way of mutual discretion of the family country to state the idea of ​​the French people in the 18th century as the father and their country as the family.

14. “Revolutionary Festival”

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

The festival system of the French Revolution. “Utopia’s festival has made everyone in the same position, and realized the diversity of no differences. The colorful human beings are assumed to be eliminated. Human activities and characters are intellectual.”

During the Great Revolution, people also assumed the task of finding an effective joint method to find the abnormal combination of the abnormal combination of being regarded by them as a natural state. Therefore, festivals have become a necessary supplement to the legal system, because the legislators formulate laws for the people and the festival provides the people for the law.

15. “Novel Jian Shi”

In the 19th century France, the Great Revolution was far from exhausting its motivation. The passion and fantasy of the revolution lingered in the hearts of generations. At the same time, the danger of the restoration of the old system existed, and the old system and the Great Revolution staged a century -old war.

In “The History of Novels”, the author Ozov analyzed the 13 novels of 9 writers in France in the 19th century, showing the confrontation between the old system and the Great Revolution in the 19th century, and inspected the difficult journey of the new and old principles. Ozov wanted to show that world again by re -reading novels that have a boundary in the 19th century.

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新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

Identify the QR code with one -click purchase ☟

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新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

Identify the QR code with one -click purchase ☟

Identify the QR code with one -click purchase ☟

新书首发:《法国大革命批判辞典》| 关于法国大革命的15种好书

Identify the QR code with one -click purchase ☟

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