As a indispensable hardware device for the development of enterprises in the Internet era, the server is well known to users, but there are not many users who understand the use of workstations. The two are representative products in the field of high -performance computing. the difference?
The server refers to the corresponding application software running in the network environment. It provides a high -performance computer with shared information resources and various services for online users. The English name is called Server. The server composition has many similarities with the PCs we usually use, such as the CPU (central processor), memory, hard disk, various bus, etc., but it is not targeted at end personal users, but provides various types of terminal users with various types of individual users. Sharing services (network, web applications, databases, files, printing, etc.), and high -performance computers in other aspects of applications. Its high performance is mainly reflected in high -speed computing capabilities, long -term reliability, strong external data throughput, etc. Therefore, the server is the core of the network and informatization of the network.
The server is specially formulated for specific applications, so the server will be divided into different types according to the different application environment of the server. Such as file server for the daily office of the enterprise, the database server for data processing, and the mail server for mail services. Because many businesses of the enterprise must ensure online 7*24 hours. Therefore, stability and reliability become the difference between the server different from PC. In order to ensure the stability and reliability of the server and reduce the downtime of the server in the multi -user and multi -tasking environment, the server platform uses a large number of technologies that ordinary computers do not have Police technology, memory error correction technology, heat insertion technology, and remote diagnosis technology, etc., so that most of the faults can be repaired in time without stopping, and they are very managed.
1. Classification according to architecture
Non -X86 server: including large machines, small machines and UNIX servers. They are servers using RISC (streamlined instruction sets) or EPIC processors, and mainly use unix and other special operating systems. Power and PowerPC processor, SPARC processor and EPIC processor developed by SUN and Fujitsu Corporation are mainly Anding processors developed by HP and Intel. This server is expensive and has a closed system, but it has good stability and strong performance. It is mainly used in the core systems of large enterprises such as finance and telecommunications.
X86 server: Also known as CISC (complex instruction set) architecture server, which is usually mentioned in the PC server, it is based on the PC -based architecture, using Intel or other compatible X86 instruction sets of processor chips and Windows operating system servers, such as IBM’s System X series server, HP’s Proliant series server, etc. Cheap, good compatibility, poor stability, and unsafe, mainly used in small and medium -sized enterprises and non -critical businesses.
2. Classification according to the application level
Division according to the application level is usually called “dividing” or “network scale” by the server level, which is the most common division method of the server. Divided. It should be noted that the server grade referred to here is not divided according to the main frequency of the server CPU, but based on the comprehensive performance of the entire server, especially some special server technologies used to measure. According to this division method, the server can be divided into: entry -level server, working group server, department -level server, enterprise -level server.
Entry -level server: This type of server is the most basic type of server and the lowest -grade server. With the increasing PC technology, many entry -level servers are now similar to the configuration of PC, so some people currently think that entry -level servers are equivalent to “PC server”.
Working group server: It is a server with a higher level than the entry -level level, but it still belongs to low -end servers. It can also be seen from this name that it can only connect to a working group (about 50 units) so many users. The size of the network is small, and the stability of the server is not as high as the enterprise server we want to talk about. Of course, the requirements for other performance should be lower.
Department -level server: This type of server belongs to the mid -range server. Generally, it supports a symmetrical processor structure with dual CPUs and has more complete hardware configurations, such as disk array, storage brackets, etc. The biggest feature of department -level servers is that in addition to the characteristics of all server servers of the working group, it also integrates a large number of monitoring and management circuits. It has comprehensive server management capabilities. It can monitor status parameters such as temperature, voltage, fan, chassis and other status parameters. Combined Standard server management software allows managers to understand the work status of the server in a timely manner. At the same time, most department -level servers have excellent system scalability, which can meet users to upgrade the system online in time when the business volume is rapidly increased, fully protecting the investment of users. It is a necessary link for the data centers of various grass -roots data collection units decentralized in the enterprise network to maintain smooth connection with the highest level of data centers. Generally, it is the first choice for medium -sized enterprises. It can also be used in financial, post and telecommunications industries.
Enterprise -level server: It belongs to the ranks of high -end servers. At least the enterprise -level server uses a symmetrical processor structure of more than 4 CPUs, as many as dozens of. In addition, it generally has an independent dual PCI channel and memory expansion board design. It has high memory bandwidth, large -capacity heat -inserting hard disk and heat -inserting power supply, super strong data processing capacity and cluster performance. Enterprise -level servers are suitable for running a large amount of data, high processing speed, and financial, securities, transportation, post and telecommunications, communications or large -scale enterprises with high requirements for reliability. Enterprise -level servers are used for large networks with high requirements for processing speed and data security requirements for connected computers. Enterprise -level server has the highest hardware configuration and the strongest system reliability.
Workstation, English name is Workstation, is based on personal computers and distributed network computing. It is mainly directed at professional application fields. It has powerful data operations and graphics and image processing capabilities. Software development, financial management, information services, simulation simulation and other professional fields designed and developed high -performance computers.
Generally speaking, the workstation is mainly used in the following fields:
(1) Computer -assisted design and manufacturing CAD/CAM: This field is regarded as a traditional field of workstation. The use of CAD/CAM technology can greatly shorten the product development cycle, and at the same time reduce the development difficulty of high -tech products, and improve the design quality of the product. In the field of CAD, as large as a building, the graphic workstation has shown a strong competitive advantage with its intuitive, high -precision, and high efficiency.
(2) Animation design: The user base is mainly TV stations, advertising companies, film and television production companies, game software development companies, and interior decoration companies. The TV station uses the graphics workstation to perform the film production of various TV columns; advertising companies use it to make an animation scene of advertising programs; film and television production companies use it for computer stunt production; game software companies use it as a development platform; indoor decoration companies not only not only The graphic workstation is designed, and users can see the three -dimensional simulation renderings after the decoration.
(3) GIS geographical information system: The customer base it faces is mainly urban planning units, environmental protection departments, geological and geological survey institutes, research institutes, research institutes, etc. They usually use graphic workstations to run GIS software. It uses households to understand the details of the project location and surrounding facilities in real time, such as street lamps, underground drainage pipelines, etc. These large -data quantities can only run at high efficiency on workstations with professional graphic processing capabilities.
(4) Graphic image processing: It is an industry with a high degree of popularization. Users usually use graphic workstations as hardware platforms, use software such as Photoshop, CorelDRAW as the operation tool, and dedicated to picture and image processing, advertising and promotional color page design, packaging design, textile pattern design, etc.
(5) Simulation simulation: In the military field, simulation simulation technology is an effective means of training fighter drivers, tank drivers, and simulation of maritime sailing; in the field of scientific research and development Perform simulation operations, find problems in time, and modify the design.
3. The difference between server and workstation
Server and workstations are high -performance computers, but the server focuses on data throughput, so more support peripherals (hard disks, I / O slots, etc.) are more; workstations focus on graphic processing capabilities, so the outer peripheral It is relatively small, but the architecture is specially designed with graphic processing. It uses a high -end graphics card and supports 3D image processing. Workstations are mainly used in various design and multimedia production fields.
Workstations are usually equipped with high -resolution large -screen displays and large capacity and external memory, and have strong information processing functions and high -performance graphics, image processing functions, and networking functions. Depending on the soft and hardware platforms, the UNIX system workstation based on the RISC -based (streamlined instruction system) architecture and the Windows and Intel PC workstations based on Windows and Intel. The UNIX workstation is a high -performance professional workstation. It has powerful processors (previously used RISC chips) and optimized memory, I/O (input/output), graphics subsystems, and use proprietary processors (Alpha,, Alpha,, ALPHA, Alpha, Hardware systems such as MIPS, POWER, etc.), memory, and graphics, a proprietary Unix operating system, and application software for specific hardware platforms are not compatible with each other. The PC workstation is based on high -performance X86 processors. It uses stable Windows NT and Windows2000, Windows XP and other operating systems. O (input/output), network and other subsystems to meet the requirements of professional software operation; workstations with NT, Win2000, and XP as architecture use standard and open system platforms, which can minimize the cost of ownership.
In addition, according to the volume and portability, the workstation can also be divided into desktop workstations and mobile workstations. The desktop workstation is similar to ordinary desktop computers. It is large and has no portability at all, but its performance is strong and suitable for professional users. The mobile workstation is actually a high -performance laptop, but its hardware configuration and overall performance are one grade higher than ordinary laptops.
The server can provide various services for workstations and PCs, including network communication services, file sharing services, hardware sharing services, and various resource services. The workstation can also help the server to divert calculation and other tasks while obtaining various resources. In terms of supporting operating systems, the server and workstations are also very inconsistent. The workstation supports the non -server version, and the server only uses the Server version system, which lists the operating system supported by some server.
Unix: OpenServer, Unixware, aixunix, etc.;
Linux: redhat, xterm, etc.;
Windows: NT Server, 2008 Server, etc.
Databases are generally installed on the server. The server data is operated. There are generally two patterns: CS (Client-Server) and BS (Browser-Server). Like us online, it belongs to BS, and some places use CS structures. The two structures have their own advantages.